Land degradation is a global phenomenon that endangers the livelihoods of the population at large and country’s ability to produce crops, livestock, and products from other natural resources (). Population pressure, resulting to searching more production farm and exacerbating land-use change. Usually it pushed farmers into cultivating ever-steeper slopes for small-scale food crop production. For example, in many African, Central American, and Southeast Asian countries 50-70% of total agricultural output value comes from subsistent agriculture and largely from hillside farms, whose practitioners are among the poorest farming households (Blaikie and Brookfield, 1987).
Degraded lands are those land, whose conditions has deteriorated to such an extent that it can not be put to any productive use. Soil degradation is resulting persistent decrease of soil potential productivity and loss of environmental regulatory capacity. Land degraadtion is the results of complex human-environmental interaction, which includes inappropriate land use and management, such as the over exploitation of forest for fuel, timber, overgrazing, excessive tillage, crop-residue removal, shifting cultivation on hill slopes, infrastructure development, land tenure systems of different ethnic tribes, and mining activities without proper changes in land management (Patiram, 2002). (Role of agroferesrtry reffffff). Approximately, 24% of the world’s land area is degrading, or or subject to high rates of degradation (Bai et al., 2008). The degraded lands included more than a fifth of the cropland and nearly a third of the forests (Bai et al., 2008). Globally, Land degradation has affected 1.2 billion hectares of agricultural lands and 80% of this degradation has taken place in developing countries, where most countries lack sufficient resources to restore degraded land (Melville, 2006). It has been estimated that, worldwide, land degradation costs between USD 6.3 trillion and USD 10.6 trillion annually. The concern is increasing, because land degradation is still active thought the world and happening at a rapid pace, with some 12 million hectares of land degraded globally each year. As a result, the productivity of the world’s lands continues to decline even as the human population and demand for food and goods grow. Over time, land degradation can increase the vulnerability of rural communities to biological and environmental hazards and to the effects of climate change.