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It has also been noted that concussions can lead to mental health problems, in particular depression. One theory suggests that strong impact to the head can damage many neurons and lead to depression, irritability or suicidal thoughts (Redelmeier, 2016). In addition to this it has also been noted that concussions can have a negative effect on the social interaction of people, because of the hidden damage that has been done to their brain (Redelmeier, 2016). A head injury can cause the brain cells to go on “high alert” which means that they overwork, and this can also lead the brain to become excessively inflamed when later fighting immune challenges (Mental Health Weekly Digest, 2013). Researchers say people who have had concussions when young, are likely to have depressive symptoms now and this is possibly related to the inflammation (Mental Health Weekly Digest, 2013). People are struggling with this because the depression symptoms can not be treated the same as antidepressants (Mental Health Weekly Digest, 2013). Therefore this becomes a struggle for the person because their depression can not be solved as easily as others. Although this is still something that physicians are still trying to learn more about, the challenge for those suffering remains. Research also indicates that 20% to 30% of individuals suffer from depression after they have received a concussion (Boschert, 2011). Concussions have also been known to have similar side effect as Alzheimer’s. The decreased brain weight, thinning of corpus callosum, enlarged ventricles, are all similar to the symptoms found in Alzheimer’s (Edwards et al, 2014). As well Alzheimer’s and concussions have very similar side effects, such as cognitive function, memory loss, difficulty making decisions, orientation and language (Wu, Sun, Song, Wang, Xiong, Teng 2017). A study  at Boston University School of Medicine had researchers study 160 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans, some who had suffered concussions, some who had not (Link found between concussion, Alzheimer’s disease, 2017). The researchers indicated after the MRI’s were completed that the cortical thickness of those who had a concussion was much thinner (Link found between concussion, Alzheimer’s disease, 2017). This resulted in noticeable memory decline and possibly a relation to Alzheimer’s (Link found between concussion, Alzheimer’s disease, 2017).    It is very important for those who receive concussion to rest and recover, oif this does not happen the side effects can last longer than what they should (Redelmeier, 2016). Also in relation to the psychological changes that occur in the person it is important to be patient with them, as they will go through an adjustment period to the invisible disease (Redelmeier, 2016). Although concussions cannot alway be prevented it is important to learn ways to stop them from occurring in sports and in everyday life.

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