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Issue:Transformational Leadership has been widely researched, however less research has focused on the Transformational Leadership behaviours, and few studies have focused on the characteristics and attitudes of Transformational Leadership. This study focuses on two companies in Denmark a private accountancy firm and a public elderly care using the Experience sampling method and using questionnaires. The two hypothesis statements were:1.”Situation specific characteristics predict transformational leadership behaviours. Specifically cognitively demanding situations and situations where the leader feels in control will be positively associated with transformational leadership behaviours.”2.”Managers’ perceptions of the work environment will be related to their self-reported transformational leadership behaviours. Specifically, high cognitive demands and having a meaningful work will be positively related to transformational leadership behaviours.Method:The participants were 58 middle managers from two companies in Denmark. Managers were responsible for between 4-30 followers. The average manager age in both the samples was 41 years old, and have been working in the organization for about 14 years. Participation in the study was voluntary, and so participants completed an ESM study and questionnaire. In the ESM survey:- data was inputed into an PDA, and the researcherers provided an oral presentation and written manual to assist participants on how to use the PDA’s.The following predictors were measured.1. Situation specific predictors:- Transformational leadership was measured using the items from the Global Transformation Leadership scale. Example of questions included :Did you feel in control of the situation? How clear were you on what you were doing?2. Perception of the work environment predictors:- Information was collected based on managers working conditions.3. Cognitive demands:- These were a scale compromised of six items investigating the cognitive demands of the job. Example of the question included “Do you feel that the work you do is important?” Response categories were: 1 = To a very large extent, 2 = To a large extent, 3 = Somewhat, 4 = To a small extent, 5 = To a very small extent.4. Meaningful work: Employees were asked to rate the degree in which they experienced their jobs to be meaningful. Example of the questions included “Do you feel that the work you do is important” 1= To a very large extent … and 5= to a very small extent on a scale of (1-5)Results:The results with the association between situational factors and transformational leadership behaviours were tested and the analysis indicated that information sharing, brainstorming , planning and problem solving, discussion and evaluation were all situations associated with transformational leadership.The second test on whether perceived work characteristics at the individual manager level were associated with reporting of transformational leadership behaviours which is the combination of individual and situational levels. It was found to be that managers self reported cognitive demands and meaningful work predicted transformational leadership behaviours.Hypothesis 1 was supported, and all the situations were included in the study it was seen that brainstorming, planning and information sharing were significantly related to transformational leadership behaviours. The study found only 26% of the managers time was spent with their subordinates. In addition to our hypothesis it was seen that experiencing a sense of control in the situation was also found to be strongly related to transformational leadership behaviours.Hypothesis 2: Leaders reports on cognitive demands and its relation to meaningful work were found to be related to transformational leadership behaviours. Implication: I found this particular study to be quite interesting due to the fact that not many people have researched on characteristics and attitudes of transformational leaders. This topic relates to our in class Reading on Transformational leaders and Figure 8.3 The additive Effect of Transformational Leadership helps us understand some aspects of this research and the cause to certain behaviours of leaders such as “Inspirational Motivation”, Idealized influence”, intellectual stimulation ” and we see these predictors being used in the research such as cognitive demands which helps test intellectual stimulation.Overall I found this research quite rewarding in terms of the data it had collected, and some of the results that were found were surprising for example that only 26% of managers time was spent with subordinates.Reference:Nielsen, K. and Cleal, B. (2011). Under which conditions do middle managers exhibit transformational leadership behaviors? — An experience sampling method study on the predictors of transformational leadership behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(2), pp.344-352.

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