Invasions by barbarian tribes- String of military losses sustained against outside forces, raided by goths, vandals and the germanic people. Rome was under constant stress until Odoacer finally raided Rome and killed Emperor Romulus Augustus.Economic troubles and overreliance on slave labor- There were Constant wars, overspending, and oppressive taxation and inflation lead to larger class differences.
Also, Rome’s economy depended on slaves to till its fields and work as craftsmen,The rise of the Eastern Empire- The Byzantine Empire later known as the Constantinople and the Western empire was created to make the empire easier to govern. This eventually led to both empires drifting apart and both the empires couldn’t protect each other well enough against invaders.Overexpansion and military overspending- As the empire got bigger it began to get harder to govern and Communication began to fail despite their excellent road systems.
In order to protect each of the annexed kingdoms, more funds were needed, and this slowed technological advancement.Government corruption and political instability- Rome’s sheer size had already made it difficult to govern, an along with that, inconsistent and unstable governors increased the problem. Civil war thrust the empire into chaos. This instability soon transversed to the Senate too.
The arrival of the Huns and the migration of the barbarian tribes- The battles of the Huns through Europe drove the Germanic people closer to Rome. The romans taking them in treated the goths cruelly, which lead to a revolt and later the sacking of their empire by the Goths king Alaric.Christianity and the loss of traditional values- The spread of Christianity was another factor which led to Rome’s downfall. Christianity changed the Roman values into a monotheistic belief by removing the Emperor’s divine right. Meanwhile, Pope’s and other church leaders were taking more active roles in politics complicating governance even more.Weakening of the Roman legions- Unable to recruit enough soldiers from the Roman citizenry, emperors like Diocletian and Constantine began hiring foreign mercenaries to prop up their armies. The legions were swelling with Germanic warriors. Eventually, these power-hungry officers turned against their Roman employers.