IntroductionThe emergence of Knowledge Management (KM) over the last few decades were a result from many intellectual, societal and business activities. The roots extend further for millennia, situated in particular countries such as west and east. Meanwhile others interconnected with recent gather cognitive and information sciences (Wiig, 2000).KM itself has become significant approach of organisation with its complexity is often being infuriated by Information system (IS) researchers. But the field is still considered under development for quite long time. People responsible for the thrive of competitive environment have frequently work their best to create the best possible knowledge in their area of expertise (Wiig, 2000).A combination of knowledge and other information communication (IC) act as two essences within organisation (Steward 1997; Sveiby, 1997)They have created the key resources for effectual activities and form valuable assets for exchange or sales (Wiig, 2000).IS researchers for instance have started to encourage lessons of IS notable known as Knowledge Management System (KMS). The importance of KMS is to aid in creation, transfer and applying these knowledge within organisation (Alavi & Leidner 2001).Through the KM definition, the importance is being highlighted as it is a process of using an organise method to apprehend, constructing, handling and dissemble of knowledge throughut the organisation. Therefore, an organisation will able to work faster, reprocess the same great methods and lower the cost from project to project (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Pasternack & Viscio 1998; Pfeffer & Sutton, 1999; Ruggles & Holtshouse, 1999).Nevertheless, as organisation strive for continuous improvement on KM, so does the competitors in sustaining KM practices.These practices which become more sophisticated and far beyond the reach must be originated from the historic roots of Knowledge-based perspective (Wiig, 2000). To discover the opportunity ahead, researchers need to pay attention to the power of past of KM. Literature ReviewAccording to Wiig (2000), he stated that knowledge have been long documented by both eastern and western philosophers over millennia. Efforts were directed to obtain theoretical and abstract in order to enhance more knowledge. Managing knowledge aspects have been complicated and unsystematic until now. However, in the 13th century took into account the methodical and philistine of KM perspective (Wiig, 2000). Many researchers pinpointed the current focus on knowledge in KM field is leaning towards commercial effectiveness. Although there is emergence of effectual behaviour to assist competitive excellency but numerous factors must be comprehended as well (Boulding, 1966; Cronin, 1986). Alavi and Leidner (2001) highlight that the prospect of knowledge on the services rendered by valuable assets rely on the integration of both and know-how the knowledge is being applied in the organisation. However, knowledge-related resources are hard to comprehend and socially abstruse. The knowledge is implanted in the firm and could be carried out through multiple sections include the culture, identity, daily routines, systems as well as the individual employees (Grant, 1996a, 1996b; Nelson & Winter 1982; Spender, 1996a, 1996b). If the organisation able to apply these knowledges and consider them as assets, they may able to produce long-term sustainable competitive advantage. But to achieve these, the information technology plays important role in effectuating it (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).Notable researchers especially in IT literature often seek the enquiry of understanding the knowledge by differentiating knowledge, information and data (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).Fahey and Prusak (1998) described that if knowledge were not different from data or information then there are not formidable about knowledge management. In general perspective, data is treated as raw number and facts, while information is treated as processed data and knowledge is genuine information (Dretske, 1981; Machlup, 2014; Vance, 1997). Yet, knowledge is information owned by individuals. It is treated as personalised information which may or may not be correspondent to facts, rules, procedures, concepts, scope and judgements (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).The radical appearance of knowledge may similar to other forms of IS. It is often geared towards making individuals able to assign meaning to information and learn the knowledge in information or data (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).With mind concentrate on this perspective knowledge, it enables individuals (users) to broaden their knowledge and apply them to organisational needs (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).In accordance to knowledge KM is suggested to be focus on strategic advancement and creating the intellectual capital. By applying various concept of knowledge, each view can be assumed as different ways in handling knowledge and other dissimilar perspective of role when assisting the KM (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).Discussion and AnalysisThe roots of Knowledge ManagementNowadays, schools and universities aim to provide support lesson required for leading minority in KM. The knowledge that they learn come from philosophical thinking whereas others obtained from particular expertise of environment. Meanwhile the rest absorbed from learning through educators and business leaders’ reforms (Wiig, 2000). The recent intellectual roots of KM are taken from explanation of economic driving forces in “Knowledge era” and step taken by 20th century result to enhance capabilities (Kelly, 1996; Romer, 1989).Wiig (2000), claimed that the roots of KM can be further taken from Historical efforts and 20th century results to enhance effectiveness as explained below: -Historical EffortsI. Religion and Philosophy• To infuse the character and nature of knowledge and the sanctions of the individuals “to think for themselves’. II. Psychology • To comprehend the important role of knowledge in human cognitive.III. Economics and social sciences• To recognised the important of knowledge in society.IV. Business Theory• To understand the work activities and its organisation.20th Century Results to Enhance EffectivenessI. Taylorism• Also known as Rationalisation of Work• Includes Total Quality Management (TQM) and Management of Sciences to refine effectiveness.II. Psychology, Cognitive Sciences, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Learning Organisation• To improve quickly than competition thus provide basic for the people to be more effective. Driving Forces Influencing Knowledge ManagementThe enquiry on the driven forces behind KM can be explained by the evolution of several factors. KM is essential for driven forces such as competition, market place demands, new operating and management practices. This may also include the availability of KM approaches and information technology (Wiig, 2000). The driven forces that influence KM are categorised into two- the external driving forces and the internal driving forces.External Driving ForcesIndeed, to remain competitive most organisation need to be nimble and operate in the pace of environment that keep on changing. Their growth and success often subjected to the ability for them able to use external forces wisely. Wiig (2000) stated external factors such as globalisation, sophisticated customers and competitors should be considered if organisation want to be nimble in the fast growth environments. I. GlobalisationWith the increase amount of business going global, the international commerce also has increasing recently. Business tends to compete with one another to increase their volume of sales by selling the products or services at low cost. The product that once created within the local country are now may able to be assemble across multiple sources in worldwide at low cost (Wiig, 2000).Take into example, the smartphone that we use daily, certain parts are made from different countries even though the brand itself is widely from known countries such as USA or Korea. The limited resources in developed countries can know be found in developing countries. Although the capabilities of the production and services can be find in advanced countries but with managing the knowledge and know how to obtain the development, it acts as cut-throat competition to ensure the survival and the effectiveness in term of operations, marketing and development of products and services (Wiig, 2000).II. Sophisticated CustomersIf companies want to thrive and grow, they need to listen on customer demands. One of the reasons for the failure of Toys R Us is that the company did not listen to their customers. These days customers prefer for better features, new requirements, high quality of products and reasonable prices and quick feedback in terms of the products and services (Wiig, 2000). In case of Toys R Us, the company fail to take into account that customers prefer to buy online rather than coming to brick and mortar store (Hartung, 2017).By failing to invest in e-commerce, this had lead the company to lost its customers and thus cause them to bankrupt (Lutz, 2017).III. Sophisticated CompetitorsIndeed, the reminder for continuous improvement for every organisation is competitors. Without competitors the organisation may not constantly try to innovate themselves in producing better products, services and practices. The organisation may need to implement discontinues break-throughs by using new technologies and knowledge practices to ensure they able to keep the requirement in building more competitive expertise (Wiig, 2000). A good example would be Apple versus Samsung. In order to compete in becoming world number one brand in smartphone industry they simultaneously keep on improving their technologies and use the knowledge their have to build better product and services specifically for their customers. Other internal factors named sophisticated suppliers may need to be considered as well for the impellent cause towards KM. Internal Driving ForcesOther than visible factors shown by the organisation, it is important also to look through the internal driving forces. In organisation the creation of many type of processes and activities have provided favourable circumstances for managing knowledge in a better way. While in some case it might be treated the opposite way. The exemplary of significant changes may include:I. Barrier in Organisation effectivenessIn general, organisation effectiveness is restricted by the flows of work within the organisation, information access and others. The barrier itself have been reduced by continuous improvement, the investment in technology such as IT, IC and logistics. Even the personnel work and tasks have been assigned properly and information is being enhanced with better accuracy, complete and timely for decision making (Wiig, 2000). Instead of focusing in efficient and daily routine the current demand focus on more effectiveness and intelligent behaviour possess by the individual within the organisation. The bottlenecks (barrier) from typical and tangible field to knowledge-related perspective may require greater understanding and enhancement in expertise (Wiig, 2000).II. Boost technological effectiveness Through the usage of KM methods, the advancement in information management and technology and appliance of AI are made feasible (Wiig, 2000).The evidences can be shown through collaboration of groupware work, the ability to encode foor knowledge bases, the performance support system (which can be learn through academic module in certain circumstances) and the advancement of search engines (Wiig, 2000).A good example for the advancement of search engines would be the google search engine itself, where specific words and enquiries can be use to search particular matters. III. To understand human cognitive capacityThirdly, the reason behind the internal forces of KM would be understanding on how intellectual and mental of people act as the centre of effective organisation (Wiig, 2000).Similar to the subject acquire through human resource management and organisational behaviour, people plays role for the effective KM in organisation. By incorporating the understanding of cognitive functions such as mental models, how the knowledge is being comprehended, they may affect the decision making and knowledge-based work when strategising to conduct KM (Wiig, 2000).Failure to understand the human cognitive aspects, the organisation may not able to move on and would continue to repeat the same mistake without making any progress. Knowledge Management in the FutureKM practitioners perceive that KM has brought new characters into the organization (Wiig, 2000). KM capability are currently in upturn as managers at all respective levels within the organization must act upon to become more intelligent in work and nimble with the demands of advanced technology and the reduction of workforce. The traditional practices are not suitable in high technological savvy environment and the ephemeral employment in the recent days (Warier, 2003).As being emphasized before, the KM methods and technologies can support organization to enhance not only their product quality but examining their processes and to exceed their customer expectations. Imagine KM is regarded as object or associate with information access, then KM would be assumed as developing and handling knowledge stocks. If it is viewed as process, then it may focus on knowledge flow, creation, sharing and distribution of knowledge process. (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).In 2004, it was projected that the private and public sectors in the worldwide have spent $5 billion to $12 billion on KM services (depend on the nature of market for study group (Warier, 2003).Even though huge amount of investment and hour required to build this KM but it help the organization i.e. government agencies and institutions to understand better on things and helps them to make a room for improvement and control the cost. These days, organization realise that there is numerous amount of information that required to be stored. Without the KM, they would not understand how to include the data intro context and what are the factors and methods that can be employed to bring more benefit towards the organization. By using KM systems, organization may able to consolidate their assets, understand how to do their internal operations in better way and constituent bases (Warier, 2003).With KM it markets the development and application of method that can be considered as enrichment for the personnel and attainment of organizational goal. In such ascertain the organization to have long term survival or better delivery quality services on the continuous future (Wiig, 2000). ConclusionTo conclude KM will keep on evolving and drawn upon assistance from many areas such as theoretical, practices and application. Organisation become more aware on how knowledge play useful role in their organisation. They even pay more attention on their competitor and try to enhance their competitive power on their IC. Still, organisation who pursue the KM without fully understanding the effect and benefit of developing them may create danger instead of value within the organisation. As being mentioned before, by enhancing KM, an organisation may able to survive and thrive for long-term. Furthermore, the KM effort may serve major benefits towards the organisation. Other than supporting the strategy of KM, it help the individuals to set up priority setting and minimise costs and risks associate with the process, products and services incurs. Nevertheless, bear in mind that not all KM can be use in every organisation. To become more effective, most organisations should create approaches that may help the personal to acquire better understanding on the knowledge. Thus help the implementation, operating and process flow of work and tasks to become more smoothly.