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IntroductionThe aim of this report is to identify key features in regard to Legislation and EU directives in regard to environmental waste management.Identifying and explaining key features of relevant Legislation.There are several key pieces of legislation and acts that are relevant and apply to the management of waste in regards to environmental protection and controlling hazards and risks in the workplace.One of the key acts set in place in was the Environmental Protection Act 1990, and served as an order to establish an appropriate structure and management system for waste and emissions in the UK. This act was introduced in order to prevent risk to the health of the people or ecosystem around waste products, or the risk of incompatible or dangerous waste being disposed of in the same area, and therefore identifying appropriate routines of the safe disposal of different waste products.This protection act covers a variety of areas and is able to be summarised across several parts.The first part of the act covers the limits that the state is able to administer to a certain process or substance in regards to the harmfulness of the substance and the environment.The second part of the act lays out an adequate set of conditions in which waste can be disposed of on land in a controlled and non-harmful manner, in order to properly be able to license waste disposal and prevent actions that are illegitimate and do not meet these set conditions.The third part of the act introduces a level above local enforcement groups and agencies that are able to reprimand unacceptable actions with varying levels of discipline including criminal offences.The fourth part of the act introduces “leaving litter” as a criminal offence.The fifth part of the act involves an amendment of the radioactive substances act and the assignment of inspectors, assistant inspectors and enforcing agencies.The sixth part of the act helps to ensure that adequate measures are reached in order to responsibly handle waste materials and substances produced by GMOs (genetically modified organisms) if they are released (accidentally or purposefully) from a person or companies control.Another key piece of legislation set in place was the Energy act 2013 and was introduced by the parliament as a more updated piece of legislation to replace the Energy act 2010 and also in order to have a proper, correctly carried out reform of the UK’s electrical market.One of the other major reasons this act was introduced is so that the Uk is able to maintain a consistent electricity cache whilst many older forms of electrical supplies are made redundant, for example power stations which produce electricity through fossil fuels such as coal whilst more clean and efficient sources replace them, such as nuclear energy stations.The act also aims to delay decarbonisation targets from the climate change act 2008 have set reasonable and realistic decarbonisation targets for around 2030.Another feature of the act is that it allows the government exclusivity of the pipelines and storage system run by the government.The Waste Minimisation Act 1998 did not set targets for local waste collection authorities in regards to waste reduction and collection in their area, but however directed many funds towards many recycling projects rather than at waste minimisation itself, and it has been heavily criticised for the way funds have been allocated. The government has been attempting to redirect municipal and industry waste in the more recent years, however there is not many up to date statistics and it is impossible to be certain as to whether there has actually been an effect on this.The Radioactive substances act 1993 was introduced in regard to the control and building up of radioactive waste, as well as the safe and proper dispatching of said waste.One of the main aims of this act is also to safeguard the environment against pollution due to the use of radioactive material in any setting where radioactive waste will be produced, gathered and disposed of, and that any party involved in the activity is correctly licensed and authorised to be doing so.Requirements of the safe disposal of waste in regards to the environment.The requirements for the safe disposal of waste can vary quite a lot, depending on several factors.The type of waste – There are many different types of waste, and many have different requirements for disposal, for example , food waste can be disposed of and recycled more easily (if it is biodegradable) than another form of waste such as radioactive waste, which could remain dangerous for thousands of years and could be dangerously radioactive and if so, needs to be disposed of and accounted for very thoroughly, as to avoid contamination or damage to the environment.However, if waste is disposed of incorrectly and does not meet requirements for the safe disposal of waste and/or breaks legislation, penalties can be incurred and issued to the guilty party.In the UK, there are several penalties that can be served to offenders who breach environmental law/legislation, ranging on the severity of the offence as well as the type of waste improperly disposed of.Clean up notices, when these notices get issued to businesses as a means to make them clear up contamination which has been produced as a result of their actions, if they do not meet the requirements of the notice it is also classed as a criminal offence.Enforcement notices, if a business has created a breach in environmental law, and if necessary, is able to force a business to halt temporarily or permanently until the mistake/breach has been corrected, again it is a criminal offence to breach this notice.Civil sanctions, in most cases where an environmental law has been broken, a criminal offence has occurred. Most of the time the penalties served include a fine, or as well as imprisonment. Depending on the court where the case runs its course the punishment in this category can vary. In the case where the trial takes place in crown court, the penalty incurred by the trialled party (if found guilty) is typically an unlimited fine or as well as up to 2 years in prison. However is the case is tried in magistrates court, the largest penalty can be a fine of up to £50,000 or as well as up to six months imprisonment.Civil sanctions, usually involve fines and other enforcement action.Identifying hazards in an engineering environment.In the working environment, for example the mechanical workshop we regularly enter and work in whilst at college, there are many hazards and risks whilst performing tasks which we need to identify and minimise.Methods used to identify hazards in the working environmentWhilst in the engineering environment in college we use a variety of ways to identify and minimise the risk to the safety and welfare of people and others present there.One of the most common ways risks are identified and dealt with is by people in the immediate area of the risk itself, especially if the risk is one not assessed and caused by an unexpected change in circumstances such as a spillage or machine malfunction.An example of one of these is dynamic risk assessments.Dynamic risk assessments – The workshop is an environment where dynamic risk assessments can regularly be employed as a means to identify and minimise hazards in an ever changing environment such as the workshop. A dynamic risk assessment is a process that is used continuously to spot and minimise risks by taking immediate action when a hazard is spotted, for example one of the regular hazards that occur in the workshop is spillages of various liquids such as coolant, and by dynamically assessing the hazard when spotted a person can take action by deciding whether to actively mop it up and eliminate that hazard, or if the spillage is only minor and does not need to be mopped up, by putting up a wet floor or slippery floor sign to warn others of the hazard present.One of the key points of dynamic risk assessments is that they are very easy to carry out, which means they require very little training to complete and pick out common hazards in a quickly changing environment.Another way a risk is identified in the workplace is through standard risk assessments, that pre-identify hazards and risks to workers in the workplace and assign it an uncontrolled risk level before work is carried out there, then take control measures and re-assess the now controlled level of risk to workers and others in the workplace. Here is an example I have made of a small risk assessment for a workshop similar to the ones we use regularly at college.Hazard.What type of hazard is this?Uncontrolled risk level.Control measures introduced.Controlled risk level.Risk matrix scoreMoving machinery parts.Physical.High.Protective guards and emergency stops.Moderate.6.Irritants such as coolant.Chemical.medium.PPE such as overalls and nitrile gloves to protect skin, barrier creams to be used also.Low.3.Using machinery.Physical.High.Ensuring untrained and unauthorised personnel are not left with machines unattended, and proper instruction is given to operators before use.Moderate.6.Hand tools.Physical.Medium.Ensure that personnel are given proper instruction on how to use specific hand tools correctly before use.Low.4.Walkways being blocked/trip hazards.Physical.Medium.Ensure walkways are regularly checked and no fire exits are blocked at all times, if blocked remove the blockage or trip hazard as soon as possible.Low.2.Poor lighting in the workshop environment.Ergonomic.Medium.Ensure whilst work is being carried out there is a sufficient light source, and if there is not, try to find a portable light source or try to change to a more appropriate location to carry out work.Low.2. As you can see from reading the risk assessment, all the control measures have been selected in order to reduce the risk of a hazard causing damage or injury to an object or person ensures that the risk of the hazard occurring has been able to be reduced to an acceptable point, and can now allow a person to carry out their task properly.  An example of this is the last hazard that was identified (poor lighting in the workshop environment) is controlled by ensuring a sufficient light source, such as portable light source, or a change of location, allows the worker to work properly in a safe environment with the risk reduced to an appropriate level. All control measures selected are also suitable, and not overly restraining, and allow the person to still carry out their task properly without causing any major ergonomic issues.Risk matrix’s – A risk matrix table is used whilst assessing various risks to define risks by categorising the severity of the risk (what injuries/damage could occur and who it will effect) and the probability of the actual event occurring (potential for the hazard to cause damage/injuries to objects/people in the workplace) and the repercussions of an incident occurring. This system is employed in order to increase the awareness and exposure of various risks and decrease incidents that may take place in or around the workplace and also to aid vital decision makers in making key choices on tasks that may involve any of the risks on the matrix.This is a template of a risk matrix.Found at : As you can see from viewing the image the hazards can be rated on a scale of 0-25, this means that the lowest level risks the matrix is used to assess can be rated at 0-5 (low risk), 6-10 (moderate risk), 11-15 (high risk) or in the most extreme circumstances 16-25 (extremely high unacceptable risk), which means the task should not be attempted under any circumstances.A risk matrix also allows a controlled risk to be assessed and ensure a task is safe enough to complete without putting anyone at unnecessary risk.Hierarchy of controls – A hierarchy of controls is a set of safety steps used to reduce exposure to hazards and decrease the risks these hazards pose to people in a working environment to an absolute minimum. A hierarchy of controls is usually presented as an image of a triangle, which shows several steps of reducing risk via several factors, starting with the most effective and ending with the least effective. The several key steps that are usually presented in this image are:Elimination – eliminating a hazard is the best way of reducing the risk in almost every circumstance, as the best possible way to reduce the risk of hazard posing a risk to people in the workplace is too completely remove it from the situation.Substitution –  substitution is possibly the next best way apart from completely removing a hazard to reduce it as much as possible, as if you are able to substitute a hazard out for something else, possibly something that poses less of a risk to the people in the workplace, or in best case scenario, completely remove the risk also.Engineering controls – engineering controls does not remove or reduce the hazard which is posing a risk to the welfare and wellbeing of people in the workplace. However instead engineering controls distance the workers in the workplace from the hazard itself in order to protect their welfare and wellbeing. An example of engineering controls employed in the college workspace could be in the mechanical engineering workshop, where interlocking guards are in place on milling machines and have to be locked into place in order to start the machine itself, placing an actual barrier between the worker and the machine but not actually removing the hazard from the working environment.Administrative controls – administrative controls again do not physically remove or reduce the hazard, but instead using a variety of techniques try to minimise the subjection of workers in a workplace to the hazard itself, such as training workers who regularly use vibrating equipment to only use certain vibrating tools for a certain amount of time, for example , at the devonport dockyard a scoring system is used to rate vibrating tools and determines the amount of time a certain tool can be used for (when using a certain tool for a certain amount of time reaches a pre-decided score which means that a worker will not be able to use that tool for a certain “cooldown” period).PPE – PPE or personal protective equipment is used as a last resort defense against hazards and is required when working in certain environments or around certain hazards. An example of this is when working in the fabrication and welding workshop whilst in college requires us to wear a set of hot work overalls, which means that we then have sufficient protection against the hazards presented to us in that particular working environment.Picture taken from: The importance of carrying out all steps to a risk assessment thoroughly and correctly When carrying out a risk assessment it is very important to carry out all steps correctly, as a key point of risk assessments is very much to reduce and minimise hazards and exposure to hazards as much as possible in order to protect the health and wellbeing of workers in the workplace as much as possible, as well as the fact as an improperly controlled hazard could cause an injury or accident due to the negligence of whoever carried out the risk assessment.In a risk assessment there are 5 key steps that need to be correctly carried out in order to thoroughly complete a risk assessment.Pinpointing and classifying hazards, by making sure when hazards are identified they are checked to be physical, chemical, biological or ergonomic.Ensure that all people at risk from the hazard have been identified.Assign the hazard a risk level and draw a decision on whether the risk needs to be controlled based off of the results.Retain evidence of the risk assessment taking place. Such as keeping a copy of the risk assessment for later review or referralIf any new controls have been put in place, ensure proper training has been carried out to introduce them. This process ensures that all hazards that become risks are properly controlled, and allows these risks to be properly reduced to allow tasks and work to be carried out in relative safety and at no unnecessary risk to the welfare of employees.Justification of methods used in the working environment to reduce and minimise the risk of hazards relative to legislation and workplace requirements and policies.In my working environments, such as the dockyard and the engineering workshops in college, most of the methods used are a result of following legislation, as well as other measures introduced by the workplaces themselves, for example POWSA’s (Point of work safety assessments) are part of the health and safety policy before starting work in college workshops, used in order to make sure everyone about to start work is fully authorised to do so, and have carried out the correct pre-work checks.Another method used in this workplace is the keeping of COSHH materials and substances in a yellow COSHH cupboard in the workshops. The difference is with this method is that the method of storage is a legal requirement and not just a workplace policy, meaning it is in place due to regulations and legislation requirements, not just due to workplace policy. This cupboard also has the instructions for the use of the chemical whilst outside the cupboard or being used as a different set of hazards will be presented whilst moving and using certain chemicals and substances in the workplace. Another chemical hazard posed in the workshop is the regular use of coolant when working on machines, as a lot of different procedures are involved in the storage and use of the chemical. Firstly in order to have access to the chemical you must have full workshop PPE, which is overalls, safety boots and safety glasses, as well as blue nitrile gloves. The chemical is used in order to cool the working parts of the machines and therefore has to be transported from where it is stored, to canisters, to the dispensers in the workshop through tubes, and finally from the dispenser to the machine being used. The journey for the coolant starts where it is stored, in metal canisters away from anywhere that may have major temperature changes or other chemicals which may cause issues if stored with or near to coolant. After being stored in a suitable location that meets these criteria a plastic pipe that is regularly checked for leaks and splits carries the liquid to where it is dispensed in the workshop. The coolant that is carried through the pipe to the workshop is then dispensed at the other end into a container specified by the risk assessment to be used for carrying the coolant. In this case it is a large bucket. The coolant is then carried over to the machine by whoever put the coolant in the bucket. If any spillages occur ask someone around you to get

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