INTRODUCTION TO BARLEY Barley is a significant food source for humans and used as a crop for animal feed. It comes on fourth number in the area of farming of cereal crop in the world. The vital role of barley is that, it is used as a material which is used for manufacturing of malt and beer. The process of malting involve the germination of barley in a controlled condition in which hydrolytic enzymes are produced which digest the starch of the endosperm, protein and cell walls, which makes the grain easily crumbled.(Bamforth and Barclay, 1993) INTRODUCTION TO MALT Malting is restricted germination of cereal grains.Occasionally malt is used after drying in a warm air or by sun drying. It is used to prepare food and drinks in all over the world. In industrialized countries usually malt is prepared by barley but it can also be made by different varieties of millet, wheat, maize, oat rye, triticale and even the rice. The word malt is derived from the word “melt” as during the process of germination it becomes soft, or may be the word “malled”(broken) because in the processing of brewing malt are milled. (D.E. Briggs, 1998) Protein in Barley and Malt The barley consists of number of protein. The fully ripened grain of barley contains a wide range of protein that versatile in structure, location, role and other chemical and visible qualities. The seed tissues of barley have large number of dissolve protein contents and a clear entire complement of a protein. The three tissues of the barley seed which are the main tissues are the embryo, aleurone layer, and endosperm .the amount of protein in barley is an important factor to identify the attributes of malting, which is affected by the fertility of soil, fertilizer application, rotation of crop and climate conditions.( Finnie C and Svensson B ,2003) The quality of barley seed is determined by the presence of protein. In the process of malting, the enzyme proteinases breakdown the barley storage protein into amino acid and peptides. (Kunze W, 2007, Narzi L, 2005, Jones BL et al 2000). The most important factor for the composition of protein is to estimate the level of protein in malting and which can be measured by conventionally method, the Kolbach index (soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen*100).( Evans DE,1998, Iimure T ,2008) Why Barley is best for Malting Process? Barley consist of such enzymes which convert the insoluble starch into simple sugars and it also consist of simple protein, produce yeast and develop the other enzymes.(Kelly J. Kuehl,1994 ) Why is the Mash important? To convert starch into sugar, it is an important step which affects the finished beer. Starch Degradation Raw Barley (Complex Starch) Mash (Starch to Sugar) Malted Barley (Simple Starch) Malting Process Malting is a set of processes in which germination of barley is done in order to make sugar present inside the kernel suitable for mashing. Malting process consist of three basic steps which are ? Steeping ? Germination ? Kilning Steeping ? The aim of steeping is to uniformly hydratethe endosperm of the raw barley kernel. ? The process of germination will enhance by increase of the moisture content of barley grain is almost 12% to 45%. ? The process of steeping is complete approximately 36-48 hours and it depends upon the moisture content of raw barley kernel which is going to steep. Germination ? After the process of steeping the grains need to sprout fully so that the kernels are scattered in a hidden compartment type “bed”. ? The beds of germination barley not exceed 15cm. ? The traditional floor malting is usually preferred in mostly malt houses. ? The beds of grain required aeration at regular interval. ? To develop the grain rootlets, set over the next3-6 days so that malt’s protein and enzyme content are modified. ? The malt will be highly modified as long as the duration of germination is given. ? In the post germination process pre-kilned barley is made which is called “green malt” KILNING ? The green malt or sprouted malt is moved into kiln to dry which modify the kernel. ? Malt is dried as much as possible at a lower temperature around 90°F which helps to preserve the enzyme in the malt. ? The 1st drying period usually takes about 24 hours. ? The 2nd drying period is carried at slightly high temperature around 120°F which last for approximately 12hours. ? The 3rd step is curing which takes about 24-48 hours at almost 180-220°F. ? The process of malt affects the stability, fragrance and taste. ? The process of malt regulates the length of kilning and temperature. FINISHED MALT Malt is splited into two distinct groups: ? Brewer’s or Base Malt ? Specialty Malt Base malt has the ability to convert their own starch. Speciality malt has less ability so that they are just only use to provide taste, essence, and color to the finished beer. MALT ANALYSIS 6 Critical Points 1)Color ( it change from batch to batch) 2) Moisture (Base malt should be 1.5%) 3) Extract (DBCG)(Dry Basis Coarse Grind) 4) Diastatic Power (power to reduce the starch enzyme into malt) 5) Protein (Total) 10-12% 6) Kernel Size (easier to mill) (Greg Noonan, 1997) raw barley cleaning and grading graded barley steeping germination kilning cleaning clean malt hulls & sprouts Process of Malting Introduction to Cereal Production Cereal grains are the basic component of human diet for thousands of years and have played a major role in developing human customs. Wheat, maize, and rice, and to a lesser extent, sorghum and millets, are important staple cereal crops around the world. From the consumption of cereal grain more than 50% of world daily caloric intake is directly obtained.The cereal grains used for human food are milled to remove bran (pericarp) & germ, particularly to meet the expectations of consumers. As comparedto developed countries the developing countries depend more on cereal grains for nutritional purposes. Cereal grains are considered as the most important and single source of calories to the majority of world natives. More than 80% calories in poor countries & close to 60% of calories in developing countries are directly derived from cereals. In developed areas approximately 30% of calories derived directly from cereals. However, in the richest countries that do not consume cereals directly, the grains remainthe most important food material, since they provide most of the nutrients forthe animals that form a major part of food in these areas. Among various factors, there are three most important factorson which type of grains produced depend around the world. These are environmental, cultural, and economic factors. The most critical environmental factors that probably determine the crops grown in a specific region are temperature and the water availability. Theregions where water is available in excess, rice is dominant crop & also to some extent maize. Rice is often grown under floodingconditions, therefore most sensitive to water deficiency. For the production of rice in most regions, enough rainfall or accessible fresh water mustbe available.(Awika et al, 2011) Major Cereal Crops: 1. Rice (Oryza sativa) 2. Wheat, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) 3. Durum wheat, macaroni wheat (Triticum durum) 4. Corn or maize (Zea mays) 5. Job’s Tears, salay, adlay, tigbe, pawas (Coix lachryma-jobi) 6. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 7. Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) 8. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) 9. Oat (Avena sativa) 10. Rye (Secale cereale) 11. Triticale (xTriticosecale) 12. Teff, taf (Eragrostis tef) 13. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) 14. Wild rice, Canada rice, Indian rice, water oats (Zizania spp.) 15. Spelt (Triticum spelta) 16. Canary grass (Phalaris sp.) (Ben G. Bareja, 2015) Cereal Crop Production Technologies The initial incentive to improved productivity is an indicator to the development of hybrid varieties whereas the more recent approach is basically the result of advancements in crop production technologies. The development of hybrid varieties are broadly documented, but only recently that wide range of reports has been published on the modern methods of crop production. (ALDRICH, S. R, LENG, E. R, 1965) With respect to pesticides and fertilizersGreen revolution technique uses high energy of crop production technologies. There are several problems reported related to the pests with green revolution crops. The problems can be more criticalwhen there is energy crisis in the world. A careful judgement should be created of the advantages, prices, and dangers of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be sure that this program will not increase the serious world food situation. (David Pimentel, L. E. Hurd, A. C. Bellotti, M. J. Forster, I. N. Oka, O. D. Sholes, R. J. Whitman, 1973) It is clear that every method of production, from seedbed preparation to harvesting and storage of the crop as silage or grain, is the subject of serious study from recent years.However minimum cultivation techniques are useful for many areas in the Corn Belt and trusted to become increasingly popular. Recent research data has justified the commercial bent towards narrow drill rows,early sowing and high plant populations. (ALDRICH, S. R, LENG, E. R, 1965) Rice Rice the most important source for gaining Rice is the single most important source of calories for humans. Among cereal, rice is grown mainly for direct human consumption with very little making it to other uses. Rice contributes approximately 21% of world per capita caloric intake, and 27% of per capita calories in the developing countries.The distribution and properties of soil, climate, hydrology-related, and abiotic factors highlight the importance of the goal, which can help with particular characteristics, such as submergence tolerance (Xu et al., 2006), tolerance of better rice varieties, phosphorus shortage tolerance (Gamuyao et al., 2012) and water stress tolerance (Verulkar et al., 2010). Aerobic rice varieties are grown by crossing traditional lowland and upland varieties (Atlin et al., 2006). Another technique of rice planting is paddy rice. They are grown by replanting 25- to 35-days-old seedlings in well-developed puddled soils to judge decontamination, growth of weeds, and infestation. It needs largequantity of fresh water for its complete growth. Many technologies have been found for rice cultivation, for example another wetting- drying, direct sowing, motorized systems of rice increase. With the collaboration of national and international research organizations Aerobic rice systems are well established in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh by the Pakistan Research Council (PARC) (IRRI, 2010; Sharif, 2011). For example, as another method for replanting of seedlings, seeds are directly sown in the field. This system is suitable for the fields where there is reduction of unit area cost and labour is not available (Pandey et al., 2002; Pandey and Velasco, 2005). Moreover, wide range of chemicals is used for weed control, which also reduces labour for weeding (Farooq et al., 2011). Irrigation needs are achieved when soil water is low toits critical level. The general production of aerobic rice & directly seeded rice are more beneficial and environmentally strong production system. That’s why in water-scarce areas, aerobic rice system is beneficial technique (Bouman et al., 2007; Bouman et al., 2005). According to a report which was published by FAO (2000), 69% of fresh water is used for irrigation in agriculture and from all foods approx. 40 per centis produced by irrigation in agriculture. This strategy has given the vastness to production of cereals (rice & wheat) using less amount of irrigation water. There is a threat to Pakistan suffering for shortage of irrigation water in future. Farmers use generally open flooded systems for irrigating fields due to which water is not distributed uniformly and sometimes it is over-irrigated (Kahlown and Kemper, 2004). There is a trend towards depending on rice crops expecting standing water during the growing to increase the yields. Various researches within Pakistan has shown that 13 cm–18 cm of water is used for irrigating the field, which is noticeably more than the exploitive use between two irrigation events, which is approx. 8 cm (Kahlown et al., 2001). Wheat Wheat is a staple crop of many countries where it is consumed directly and considered as an important cereal crop. Defensibility and honesty in food production are very important for justifiable crop production. Supply of water & energy are very important and will always be beneficial for creating a base to the sustainability of agriculture andreliability of food production. Golden era of water management was experienced by Pakistan in 1980s; canal irrigation system was also developed at that time. The GDP values of Pakistan economy mainly depends on agriculturebecause Pakistan is an agricultural country unavailability of water in agriculture has adverse effects on economy. More than 40 per cent of labour is involved directly or indirectly in agriculture sector (Pakistan, 2008–09). In Pakistan, staple crops like wheat are generally planted on flat basin which is flooded with irrigation water; a large amount of water is wasted due to that irrigation method. Evaporation and deep percolation losses also cause a severe shortages to crops related to overexploitation of groundwater, encouraging a search for alternative methods of water application to crops, for example, raised bed (RB) technology, to meet water demands. There is a serious challenge for agriculturists to meet the feeding requirements of nine billion people by the middle of the 21st century (FAO, 2009). To produce more food from less water in arid and semi-arid areas is a challenge for today’s agriculture (Shideed, 2011). Water shortage and scarcity cause degradation of land due to rain-fed agriculture (Suleimenov et al., 2011) and lower food production, particularly in the agricultural and semi-agricultural zones of Africa (Fraiture et al., 2010). Approximately 80 per cent of the world’s agriculture comprises rain-fed land, which produces 80 per cent of the food globally(Falkenmark et al., 2001; Valipour, 2013). In North Africa and West Asia, 95 per cent of land is rain-fed, and approximately 40 per cent of the land in Uzbekistan has been used due to water shortages, causing despoiled fields (Shaumarov and Birner, 2013; Zakaria et al., 2013). Wheat is an important crop in Pakistan due to its widespread use as food (Iqtidar et al., 2006). Limited water results in susceptibility to water scarcity conditions, causing wheat biomass to reduce wheat crops (Oweis and Hachum, 2004; Tavakkoli and Oweis, 2004; Xie et al., 2005). Harvesting and utilization of rain water have been successfully used in many arid regions, using runoff water from the catchment area and delivering it to the collection acreage (Qiang et al., 2006; Short and Lantzke, 2006). Rain water efficiency can be improved with appropriate water harvesting techniques, such as micro-watersheds (Rogelio et al., 2006; Zakaria et al., 2012). Using this technique can increase the capacity of water per unit of crop area and can also increase productivity (Oweis and Hachum, 2003; Ramotra and Giakwad, 2012).