Introduction Recently, sexual assault on women in theU.S have been extremely disregarded by victims,family members,and the general U.S people. The United States Department of Justice Definesexual assault ascontact or behavior that happens without the explicit consent of the otherpersonsexually.Activities that are forced like sexual intercourse, forcible sodomy, oral sex,molestation,incest, fondling, and attempted rape also falls under sexual assault. (3Neufville,2017).The number of sexual of sexual assault seem to be steadily increasing.
TheBureau of Justicestatistics, the national Center for Education statistics, and the AmericanInstitute forresearch recorded that during 2012 campus sexual assaults recorded were 4000but in 2015 these numbers then jumped to 5,000. (1 Nunez, 2016). Woman iscontinually the target for these types of assaults. Statistics about sexualviolence report that one out of five women are sexually assaulted while incollege men on the other hand has a much lower risk with a 1 out of 16 chanceto being targeted. (2 NSVR, 2015). Officials of the education campuses always wanttheirs campus to be safe for their attendees yet, there are no direct reason towhy this happen but the National Institute of Justice mention things likejoining a sorority group, close parties with minimal supervisions, and theamount of involuntary time we spend with unknown attacker may have a major contributionto why. (4NIJ 2015). The women who are victims of this type of abuse can oftenexperience nightmares and flashbacks fear and an anxiety disorder called PTSD.
(5opt. RVA 2017). Authorities in the legal branches takes it up and rely on thetitle IX to persecute. To reduce the amount of women being the target of theseattacks, legal authorities enforces laws, persecute, and give rights to thosewho have been a victim. Enforcementof Laws Inorder to prevent sexual assault on women on school campuses various laws are inforced to be followed. Indiana university, part of the top 15 schools forundergraduate teaching in the U.S, includes The Clery Act that requires allcollege and universities to provide a detailed report of crimes that happenednear or on campus including sexual assault.
(Indiana University, 2017). In The Handout for Campus Safety and SecurityReporting, the guide given for reporting the Clery Act, gives example of scenariosof sexual assault that is necessary to report under this act ( 2017). Thus, this act brings attentionto the action taking places to these women on college campuses. In addition tothe Clery Act, the university of Indiana included the Violence Against WomenAct (VAWA).
VAWA was first intact during1994 and have since continue to extend until today. Included provisions on rape and battering that focused onprevention, funding for victim services and evidentiary matters, subsequentreauthorizations have vastly improved services for victims of sexual anddomestic violence and stalking, as well as education and training aboutviolence against women for victim advocates, health professionals, lawenforcement, prosecutors and judges. The Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act(Campus SaVE) was also noted by the Indiana University. The house of congressincluded this act under the title IX requirements and rulings of higher education (IHE)participating in a title IV program to include in its annual security report oncampus security policy and crime statistics a statement of current policies forreporting crimes or other emergencies in or on noncampus buildings or property(currently, only reporting of crimes on campus is required). Requires suchreport to include statistics concerning the occurrence of domestic violence,dating violence, and stalking incidents reported to campus security authoritiesor local police.
Prosecutions Surprisingly, once someone violate one ofthe laws set against rape I the U.S on school campuses, the criminal is often not prosecuted. The University ofKentucky reported that when sexual assaults are reported to lawenforcement, very few cases end up being prosecuted, with research indicatingthat only 14-18% of all reported sexual assaults ultimately get prosecuted(Univerity of Kentucky 2012).
The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) hasinitiated two projects to identify, develop and test the best methods forcollecting self-report data on rape and sexual assault. In June 2011, BJScharged an expert panel from the National Research Council’s Committee onNational Statistics (CNSTAT) to examine conceptual and methodological issues surroundingsurvey statistics on rape and sexual assault and to recommend to BJS the bestmethods for obtaining such statistics on an ongoing basis (Bureau of Justice statistics 2015).In cases for sexul assault, Spohn and Holleran,legal authorities, include the importance of examining the victim’scharacter, behavior, and credibility may play an especially important role incharging decisions (2014). Researchersexamined the effect of victim characteristics, offender characteristics, andcase characteristics on charging decisions in cases involving strangers,acquaintances, and intimates.
Victim characteristics were subdivided intobackground factors. For example, The risk-taking variable was coded 1 if thepolice file indicated that at the time of the assault the victim was walkingalone late at night, was hitchhiking, was in a bar alone or was using alcoholor drugs, or if she willingly accompanied the suspect to his residence orinvited him to her residence.LegalRights For Victims Of courseit’s after the assault the women report the rape. They should know that thereare many rights to their benefits that can help them come and prevent it fromhappening again.States are just beginning to adopt victims’ rightslaws that will apply specifically to these cases. In the meantime, manyexisting victims’ rights laws may be interpreted to apply in thiscontext.
These does not always apply to all cases, it varies. Jurisdictions are moving to process previously untested sexual assault kits (SAKS), some ofwhich had remained untested for decades. When such testing results in further investigation orthe reopening of cases, victims may need counseling or other services to cope with the impact ofthe retesting (13Myriad Media 2013). Theassembly bill noted Existing law grants the victim of sexual assault, as specified,the right to have a victim advocate and a support person of the victim’schoosing at any interview by law enforcement authorities, district attorneys,or defense attorneys. Existing law requires the law enforcement authority ordistrict attorney, before commencing the initial interview, to notify a victimthat he or she has this right.
This bill would require a law enforcementauthority or district attorney to also notify the victim that he or she has theright to request to have a person of the same gender or opposite gender as thevictim present in the room during any interview with a law enforcement officialor district attorney, unless no such person is reasonably available. Conclusion Womenbeing the target for sexual assault on school campuses in the U.S cannot bereasoned with. It leads to an unhealthy state of mind to the victims.
There’sminimal things we can do to revents this. Legal authorities enforces laws andacts that reduces these chances and creates a safer environment for thesewomen. There are also penalties for those who violates these regulations oncampuses and off campus.
Usually it’s after the assault the victims speak up,they mostly stress the punishment of the criminal yet they fail to recognizethey have compensation for speaking up and ways to find new comfort if theydecide to continue attending the school. They have the right to find mentalrelief support for the trauma they might of experienced. Now all that’s left isin hands of the people who know the issue to spread and prevent.