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nearly impossible to go through a day without the use of communication.
Communication is sending and receiving information between two or more people.
The person sending the message is referred to as the sender, while the person
receiving the information is called the receiver. The information conveyed can
include facts, ideas, concepts, opinions, beliefs, attitudes, instructions and
even emotions.

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process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only
exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create
and share meaning. In general, communication is a means of connecting people or
places. In business, it is a key function of management–an organization cannot
operate without communication between levels, departments and employees.



Communication process

is the process of conveying information between two or more people. The
communication process is the steps we take in order to achieve a successful
communication.The communication process consists of several components.

sender is the party that sends a message. Lindsey, of course, will be the
sender. She’ll also need the message, which is the information to be conveyed.
Lindsey will also need to encode her message, which is transforming her
thoughts of the information to be conveyed into a form that can be sent, such
as words.

channel of communication must also be selected, which is the manner in which
the message is sent. Channels of communication include speaking, writing, video
transmission, audio transmission, electronic transmission through emails, text
messages and faxes and even nonverbal communication, such as body language.
Lindsey also needs to know the target of her communication. This party is
called the receiver.

receiver must be able to decode the message, which means mentally processing
the message into understanding. If you can’t decode, the message fails. For
example, sending a message in a foreign language that is not understood by the
receiver probably will result in decoding failure.

a receiver will give the sender feedback, which is a message sent by the
receiver back to the sender. For example, a member of Lindsey’s team may
provide feedback in the form of a question to clarify some information received
in Lindsey’s message.

put all these components together to build a model of the communication


A sender encodes information

The sender selects a channel of
communication by which to send the message

The receiver receives the message

The receiver decodes the message

The receiver may provide feedback to the


Communication tools

Intranet/Social Intranet


intranet is a private hub that can be accessed by any authorized users within a
business organization – it is mainly used for internal communication and
collaboration.In this age of bring-your-own-device (BYOD) and telecommuting, an
intranet solution will result in a more flexible workforce and ensure all
employees are working towards the same goals.


Chat & Private Messaging


spaces which provide private/group messaging and chat functions are often
viewed as one of the best business communication tools to keep teams working
together. It’s an effective form of communication for busy employees and
managers. Instant messaging makes updates on projects and general team
discussion much easier.


Discussion Forums


discussion forums may seem like old tech to some, it is still one of the
preferred communication business tools used today.A discussion forum can bring
together management and employees and allows for an open discussion on any
topic (usually set up and monitored/moderated). It can also help in knowledge
dissemination and bring the workforce together. Forums are also effective in
archiving organizational knowledge to be used by anyone as a reference.
Employee morale can also be boosted by participating in regular discussion


Tracking & Case Software


online help desk with a case tracking system enables employees and customers to
submit a case or support ticket. This allows it to be assigned to the right
employee and have it checked and resolved in time.A case tracking system helps
centralize customer support queries and keep track of any open issues.Track
team productivity, prioritize the most relevant and important queries and
collect valuable customer feedback that can help in improving your products,
services and customer relationships.


Internal Blogs

internal blog is also a good option. This is not something your customers and
competitors will be able to access.The internal blog is a place where employees
can share ideas and experiences fast and in an informal fashion.




Communication problems


Problems. Communication issues may potentially develop in any circumstance or
social relationship. It can be easy for individuals to misunderstand or
misinterpret others, and these misunderstandings may lead to arguments or
tension in personal, platonic, or professional relationships.




Methods to resolve the problem are;


1)Open door policy.

two way feedback.

of roles and responsibilities.

the team spirit.

time wisely.


appropriate forms of communication.


The importance of effective
communication skills


Effective communication help us to
understand a person or situation in a better way.

It enables us to solve the differences
,build trust and respect in the organisation.

Sometimes our message is misunderstood
or we misunderstand the received message 
, effective communication helps us to resolve problems with both’s point
of view .

Effective communication helps us to
connect well with kids ,spouse ,boss colleagues etc.

It helps us in decision making.



implementation of policies and programmers of management is possible only  through effective communication. We can
understand the importance of 
communication from the following point :

?  Smooth
running of the enterprise: The management may have best
planning,  the most efficient personnel, but
unless the policies and decisions are effectively  communicated to the personnel, the business cannot

?  Effective
communication is essential for motivating the employees. Even when  two persons are working each must understand what
other is trying to do and  how. They may
talk to each other, write to each other or make signs with hands.  Any how they must get their ideas conveyed from
one to the other.

?  The
smooth running of the organization depends on an effective system of  communication. If there is communication gap
then it can hamper the business  activities.

?  Maximum
productivity: Effective Communication of policies
and decisions to  those who are to put
them into action results in accurate and efficient performance.Good         communication            results  into            increased         productivity    and      production.  Communication as an influence process plays a
vital role in any organization.

?  Assists
other functions: Communication helps other functions of
management  like planning, co-ordination
etc. Top officials and lower level personnel 
communicate their ideas and suggestions on the formulation of a plan. In
the  words of Mary Cushing Niles, “Good
communications are essential to co-  ordination”.

?  Job
satisfaction: good communication promotes mutual
understanding and  this leads to job
satisfaction among employees. Their complaints and  grievances are brought to the notice of the
top officials. This helps in  developing good
employer- employee relationship.

?  Basis
of leadership: it is impossible to think of
leadership in the absence of  effective
communication between the leader and his followers. For leadership to  exist a two-way communication establishing
close relations between person is 
essential. The efficacy of leadership depends on unambiguous and  comprehensive system of communication.

?  Establishment
of Human Relations:

to Robert D. Berth, “Human relations are impossible without  Communication and communication is impossible
without human relations.”  Importance of
human approach has been accepted almost commonly at present.  The views and opinions of the mangers are to
be conveyed to the employees and  the
beliefs and complaints of the employees in turn are to be received by the  manager. This is how a sound human relation
gets established through  communication.





Non verbal communication

´  Non verbal communication

communication refers to all those messages excluding spoken words.

by Mehrabian suggested that only around 7 % of message is transmitted through
the actual words said, with the other 93 % being conveyed through the way the
words are said and other non verbal elements.

´  Non verbal communication are:

Rad eye brow, Smile, Frown, Glare, Pat on the back,
Arm around the shoulders    

´  Body language such as:

Appearance , Facial expression,Posture and distance


Importance of non-verbal


´  Firstly,
we can say that non-verbal communication is important in expressing our
emotions. Emotions such as happy, satisfied, confident, surprised, eager,
tired, stressed, sad etc. These are almost all expressed through different body
gestures and face. We are able to understand each other up on judging each other’s expression.

´  Secondly,
it plays vital role in communicating interpersonal relationships. Through
interpersonal communication we can establish trust in relationships and help
determine a person’s fidelity. 
Interpersonal communication includes communications that occurs with our
words and through our tone of voice, posture and facial expressions. 


´  Thirdly,
non-verbal communication is main supporter of verbal interaction. Infect they
supplement each other and give full meaning. Because non-verbal communication
can repeat the spoken message: contradict the message that individual is trying
to convey; emphasize the message, substitute or complement meaning to make it
understand clearly.

´  Fourthly,
non-verbal communication also reflects individual’s personality. Personality concerns the most
vital, obvious parts of an individual’s psychological life: it concerns whether
a person is sad or happy, lethargic or active, brainy or tedious. And these are
all aspects of non-verbal communication because we are able to define person’s
personality through judging their facially expressed emotions and


´  Lastly,
nonverbal communication plays greater role in performing rituals such as
greetings and goodbyes. The smile we smile as soon as we see someone we
recognize from distant itself tells a lot about importance of non verbal
communication. Similarly, waving our hand indicating good bye is another
example of non verbal communication. 

´  Moreover,
body language symbols and signs possess more than one meaning. These different
meaning can be applied accordingly to the context and culture of different
society. Non-verbal communication is not easily understandable and it is quite
confusing because it is not exact and universal in every society. But body
language plays pivotal role and it essential.

´  Feedback

term ‘feedback’ is used to describe the helpful information or criticism about
prior action or behavior from an individual, communicated to another individual
(or a group) who can use that information to adjust and improve current and
future actions and behaviors.

feedback has benefits for the giver, the receiver, and the wider organization.
Here are five reasons why feedback is so important.

Feedback is
always there.

Feedback is
effective listening

Feedback can

Feedback can
improve performance.

Feedback is a tool  for continued

feedback is important across the entire organization in order to remain aligned
to goals, create strategies, develop products and services improvements,
improve relationships, and much more. Continued learning is the key to


of feed back


•      When
a message is sent, it is important that the sender receives feedback from the
receiver to let them know that the message was successfully received.

•      Feedback
can be verbal,

    for example acknowledgements, questions or

•      Feedback
can also be written

    for example in replying to a text or email.

•      Feedback
is a very important part of the communication process as it gives the sender
the knowledge that the message has been received as intended,

•      or
can allow the sender to clarify the message where it appears that the receiver
is confused or doesn’t understand the message.





Influence, persuasion and
negotiation skills

persuasion and negotiation are all aspects of communication.

They are
linked and can often be used together, but they are different.




can be direct or indirect. Direct influence is when the person Attempting to
change the attitude of another speaks directly to the other person. This type
of influence would be used within sales or customer services roles. Indirect
influence is where the message attempts to reach its target via a third party.
For example organisations may pass messages to public relations firms or
analysts, in the hope that these parties will in turn influence potential
customers. Influencing techniques are used frequently by sales people to
encourage us  to purchase goods and
services. There will also be many situations within organisational relationships
where it will be important to influence other people, for example, attempting
to gain support for a new product or process. sWhen attempting to influence
others it is important to consider the objective and the reasons why
influencing the other party is necessary as forceful influence may be seen as

• Influence
is the ability to change others’ attitudes, opinions or behaviour.

• Persuasion
is the attempt to deliberately get others to change an attitude, opinion, or

• Negotiation
is the ability to discuss an issue with one or more other people in the attempt
to establish ways to reach agreement.


Cialdini six principles of
Influence (or the six weapons of influence). These can be used whenever there
is a need to influence others.


 Human nature can
lead us to feel obliged to return favours. Therefore we may be influenced to
support someone who has supported us in some way in the past.


 As humans, we
desire consistency and don’t like to be seen to be changing our minds.
Therefore we may be influenced to follow through with our support for something
if we had shown some initial interest in it.

Social Proof.

This principle relies on the fact that humans tend to be
influenced by peer pressure. If we see others acting in a certain way, it is
likely to influence us to act in the same way


This principle is based on the fact that as humans we are
more likely to be influenced by people we like, people who are nice and
friendly towards us or people who are similar to us.


Another principle of influence is based on the premise
that we are more likely to be influenced by people in positions of authority. This
comes from a sense of trust and respect for the position held.


This principle suggests that we are more likely to want something
if its availability is limited. We are more likely to support something if we
fear losing out if we don’t.




is a stronger form of influence. While influence can be direct or indirect,
intentional or unintentional, persuasion is always direct and intentional. The
aim of influence could be to inspire someone to buy in to an idea or make a
particular decision, while the aim of persuasion is to change a person, or
group’s attitude or behaviour towards something or someone.


person using persuasion has a clear objective and is set on achieving it by
getting others to support them. Persuasion falls short of telling or ordering someone
to do something, but may use coercion as it attempts to get the other person to
agree, albeit perhaps under duress. The six principles of influence can be used
in persuasion, but they may be used in a stronger form.




Negotiation is another important
communication skill required within organisations. Negotiation can be used by
managers in their relationships with not only subordinates but with other stakeholders
such as suppliers and customers. The aim of negotiation is to settle
differences between people or groups, and to allow them to come to an agreement
which both parties accept.


Negotiation is defined by three

(1) Conflict of interest between two or more
parties. What one wants is not necessarily what the others want.

(2) No established set of rules for resolving
conflict, or the parties prefer to work outside of an established set of rules
to develop their own solution.

(3) Parties prefer to search for an agreement
rather than to fight openly, to have one side capitulate, to break off contact
permanently, or to take their dispute to a higher authority.


The skills required by a
negotiator can be summarised under three main headings:


Interpersonal skills.

 The negotiator requires good communicating
techniques such as influence, and persuasion.

• Analytical skills.

The negotiator requires the
ability to analyse information, diagnose problems, to plan and set objectives,
and the exercise of good judgement in interpreting results.

• Technical skills.

The negotiator requires attention
to detail and thorough case preparation.









This stage involves information gathering. It
is important to know the background to the problem, and the likely constraints
acting on each participant.


During this stage both sides present their
starting positions. This is a good opportunity to influence the other party.


The purpose of this stage is to narrow the
gap between the two initial positions and to persuade other party of the
strength of your case. In order to do this, you should use clearly thought out,
planned and logical debate.


At this stage agreement is reached and
hopefully a mutually beneficial outcome has been found.






An effective communication is directly proportional to an
effective negotiation. The better the communication is the better the negotiation
would be. Discussion does not mean fighting and shouting, instead it is simply
the exchange of one’s ideas, thoughts and opinions with each other. One needs
to have excellent communication skills for a healthy and an effective
discussion. Communication is an art and one should master it to excel in all
kinds of negotiation. 

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