IntroductionDefinition of FlexibilityFlexibilityis defined as the range of motion of a given joint or the ability of joints tomove freely. It also refers to the level of tissueextensibility that a muscle group possesses or the degree of extension that thetissues capable of. It means that each joint and each group of muscles in ourbody have a different range of motion or different level of flexibility. Rangeof motion is the distance and direction of joints can move, so it is possibleto have some joints and muscle groups which are mobile, that muscle can be ableto lengthen and move freely, while some areas of body which are tight, that musclesfeel short and restricted.
Types ofFlexibilityThereare three types of flexibility, which are dynamic flexibility, static activeflexibility and static passive flexibility. Dynamic flexibility The ability to perform dynamic movements within the full range of motion in the joint. Static Active flexibility The ability of to stretch an antagonist muscle using only the tension in the agonist muscle. Static Passive flexibility The ability to hold a stretch using body weight or some other external force. Factors affecting Flexibility 1. Joint structure There are several types of joints in the human body.
Some have a greater range of motion than others whereas some joints are inflexible or tight. 2. Age & Gender Females tend to be more flexible than males because of the bone structure.
This is because the degradation of the fibrous connective tissue that takes place of muscle fibres through fibrosis. ROM and flexibility also decreases when humans getting older. 3. Connective Tissue Deep connective tissue such as tendons and fascia can limit the range of motion. Those tissues differ in the ability to return their elasticity and tendency for keeping greater and plasticity. Connective tissues also lose water content and the collagen in tendons and ligaments can become less flexible and thicker. 4.
Muscle bulk Big muscles can affect the range of motion adversely. It may difficult for bulky athletes to complete certain stretches because their muscle mass gets in the way. If exercises employ heavy weights, flexibility can also be increased mass and reduced as muscle density. 5. Proprioceptors Proprioceptors are tiny sensors located inside muscle fibres which provide information about muscle length, muscle tension and joint angle. Slow stretching can ensure that those sensors do not trigger spasms or reflex actions which do not help to increase flexibility.
6. Temperature A warmer temperature is more conducive to build flexibility. Joints and muscles offer better flexibility at body temperatures that are 1 to 2 degrees higher than normal temperature. Ways to improve flexibility 1. Do static stretching Static stretching consists of the lifter holding a joint in a stretched position for usually 10 to 30 seconds allowing the muscle slowly adapt to the new range of motion. It is a passive stretch which muscles are relaxed throughout the entire exercise and done in a sitting or other stationary position. These can increase flexibility but should only be done when workout is completed, as they present in a large risk for injury to tight muscles. 2.
Do dynamic stretch Dynamic stretching should always be done before static stretching. Dynamic stretching consists of moving the body through an increased range of motion by using body weight movements. Dynamic stretching includes motion to exaggerate and mimic the movements of daily motions and actual exercise. By moving the body in multiple planes of motion, dynamic stretching helps to prepare the body for a hard training session. 3. Get a incorporate massage Stretching and training with full range of motion can work wonders with improving flexibility. However, massage is a benefit of helping to break up knots in muscles and tissues that restrict movement.
Foam rolling pre-workout can assist to prepare the body movement whereas post-workout roll out can flush away the waste products from exercise and help to recover quicker. A standard massage can improve circulation to the muscles, allowing them to repair any damage. ResultsHipFlexionActive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 115 114 117 115.33 Right 112 110 113 111.
67 Passive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 155 155 154 154.67 Right 147 148 148 147.67 Description· The left hip is more flexible than righthip in the active result, it is possible that left hip is used more due to lefthip is more flexible. The elasticity of tendon and joint for left hip are more flexiblethan right hip.· The left hip is more flexible than righthip in the passive result, it is because there is a force assist to push to thelimit. The possible of left hip is more flexible when someone giving some forceto push to the limit. Elbow ExtensionActive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 147 144 143 144.67 Right 150 154 153 152.
33 Passive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 154 155 154 154.33 Right 154 158 158 156.67 Description· As a result, right hand is more flexible thanthe left hand based on the average of both active and passive elbow extension.The reason is right hand is the dominant hand so obviously right hand is moreused than left hand. Thus, the right hand will be more flexible as shown in theresult above.
Shoulder FlexionActive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 198 197 194 196.33 Right 206 207 208 207.00 Passive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 216 216 220 217.33 Right 217 217 216 216.67 Description· The right hand is more flexible in theactive whereas the left hand is slightly more flexible than the right hand inpassive.
It is normal that right hand is more flexible since it is the dominanthand in active result.· There is a slightly difference where theleft hand is more flexible for passive. It is possible that left hand can bemore flexible due to someone helps in giving greater force than right hand forpushing to the limit. Shoulder ExtensionActive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 28 27 27 27.
33 Right 43 40 43 42.00 Passive: 1st Attempt 2nd Attempt 3rd Attempt Average Left 100 96 98 98.00 Right 98 98 100 98.67 Description· Based on the result above, left hand ismore flexible than right hand in active and passive.· Due to average result in active andpassive, we can conclude that right hand is the dominant hand. DiscussionBased on the average results above,we can conclude that passive will be more flexible because there is someoneassist to give force for pushing our joint to the full range of motion. Ourdominant arm and hip are more flexible to the non-dominant mostly in activeform. When both joint are not same level of flexibility, there is also somepossibility that non-dominant hand will have greater level of flexibility.
Thus, sometimes the result is different when the dominant arm or hip is lessflexible than non-dominant arm or hip. Hence, both arm and hip have differentelasticity. Due to the internal influence, it is not accurately show thatdominant side will be more flexible. ConclusionDifferent people have different levels of flexibility.There are several internal influence and external influence that limitsflexibility. Different parts and types of joint also have their ownflexibility. As an athlete, we should search for effective and efficient waysto improve our flexibility no matter what sports are we involved.
We have tostretch every day to make our joint more flexible so that we can achieve fullyextend to the maximum range of motion. Program such as F.I.T.T is a useful wayto plan in flexibility training to improve range of motion. As we all know, improveflexibility is not a one-day task, set a realistic target to achieve andperform it daily.