Introduction In recent days, as an issue of applied linguisticsM1 , Englishas an International language (EIL) has now turned as one of the major subjectterms for researcherM2 becauseEnglish is now considered as International language. Nearly 75% of M3 theEnglish language users in the world are non-native speakers. As a result,today’s English users are now taking the control of the conventional ownershipof EnglishM4 .
This isalso obvious that till today many teaching and learning methods of EIL havebeen proposed by numerous researchers but in Bangladesh very few researcheshave been conducted to understand the real situation of English languageteaching to spread the English as an international language and this is nearlysame for most of the countries where English is taken as a foreign language.M5 The teachers’and students’ role for learning a new language is still lacking some basicpoints and they are also getting obstructed by some of the common phenomena forwhich here in Bangladesh teaching and learning English becomes very difficult.This research investigates how Bangladeshi college students and teachers perceivethe issues related to EIL. Based on 30 responded questionnaires from college Englishteachers and 100 from college students, this study presents a collective data ofBangladeshi non native English speaking teachers’ and learners’ attitudestowards the position, scopes and problems of EIL. M6 Why EIL isimportant issue for us NowBangladeshis are using English for international and Intra-nationalcommunication more than any other language in the world. So we determineEnglish as the lingua franca for communication across nations and cultures.English is most desired second or foreign language not only in Bangladesh butalso to most of the countries in the world.
English is used as a major communicativelanguage in the workplace, international trade, global media, tourism,business, education, technology, and on diplomatic occasions. Everywhere in theworld, English has no alternative today. That is why the centre of English isde-centering itself.M7 As a developing and dependent economy, we aremainly dependent on English as a means of communication for international purposeand to get intra-national recognition. This resulted in learning English as amust. If we could initiate the learning from school level then the teaching andlearning at the college stage would have much better than now it is. M8 TeachingEnglish as an International/ foreign Language in Bangladesh New pedagogies of teaching EIL havebeen suggested to cope up with the fast spreading language but those teachinginstructions are yet to be taken in Bangladesh. We are now considering thepresent situation of our college level where non native English teacher are teachingto the non native English speaker who uses Bangla in everywhere even at thetime of teaching and learning in classroom .
ThisM9 consequences a bangali environment where English remains foreign language andstudents donot understand the value English as an International M10 language. Some recent surveys on the teachersand students of a college in Dhaka and Feni find that teaching measures incollege levelare not really going with levels which are suggested by the experts. thispaper tries to point out some major issues which are having larger impact onteaching English. These issues impede the teaching and learning process inBangladesh; in addition these problems make the students to take English asforeign language.
Now come to the points which, I have found, are working as majorcatalysts for learning language.M11 Teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards grammar in any language, Grammar is obviously one of themajor parts of teaching and learning M12 but this grammar has turned itself, because ofcurrent educational system here, to become the very first issue for whichstudent are taking themselves away from learning English in Bangladesh. Most ofthe teachers from the beginning of teaching at college stage are taking thegrammar more important than teaching the language. As a result the languagelearning becomes more tough and uninteresting for such non-native Englishlearners.
Thishas also the similar effect on the teachers who emphasize on teaching grammarto the student. While the teachersshould emphasize on spontaneous learning instead of memorizing the grammatical M13 rule are focused. It is again true for the students whoonly want learning grammar rather than learning the language.M14 For this reason, such tendency is not creatingany ideological framework of grammar in students’ brain rather creating a structurefor using the rules in language for a short time.
A conversation with college teacher hasgiven me another issue that there are a few professional competences among thelanguage teacher for why these kinds of teaching and learning are going on.M15 Here comes to my survey analysis wherethere are two groups; one is language teachers and another is language learnerswho view “grammar” and its necessity in learning English very differently fromone another. Now a chart will show some basic investigation that how many ofthe percentage wants what… Subjects Participants Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Fact 1 teachers should emphasize on teaching grammar to the students Teacher 40% 24% 16% 8% Student 42% 18% 27% 13% Fact 2 teachers must try to speak English without grammatical errors at all times Teacher 32% 48% 13% 4% Student 21% 44% 34% 1% Fact 3 Student should use correct grammar Teacher 28% 52% 16% 0% Student 38% 53% 8% 1% Fact 4 People using English should try to avoid grammatical errors Teacher 22% 61% 15% 2% Student 14% 47% 36% 2 %M16 Here we see most of the students and teacher are giving emphasis onlearning grammar rather than internalizing the language and this kind ofattitude really hindering their teaching and learning the English languagebecause language is not only a matter of language but it is means ofcommunication what we need just to internalize. Now to the second point….M17 Why and how pronunciation or regional accent matters for EIL orEFL Jenkins claims, ‘TheEIL community is an international community in which all participants have anequal claim to membership’. So why the pronunciation matters or why does the student’sardent care go for native like pronunciation? To our college student, nativespeakers’ like pronunciation is not the main goal but it acts very crucially increating the eagerness in student’s minds for learning the target language.Local accents in English have rights of its’ own.
In most cases students’origin places create some distinctive feature for them which they cannot ignoreand they pronounce some words a bit differently. This kind of impediment bumpthem back in communication and in using of those word while communicating. Forthem, the student and the teacher of EIL, native pronunciation can act as amodel or a reference for their teaching and learning. If pronunciation andaccent dominate in learning language this learning becomes very tough for suchbilingual learners to achieve the maximum goal of learning EIL for anyBangladeshi college level student. The goal of such Bangladeshi college levelstudent is to communicate within intra-national boundary where the importanceof accurate pronunciation remains less significant.
On the other hand for theinternational communication it may differ in case of pronunciation. Again thiskind of justification or opinion varies from teacher to teacher but for studentsmost of the cases this opinion has been seen as same. My survey inspects theimpact of pronunciation in learning the language on 100 college students. Subjects Participants Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Fact 1 teachers should teach good pronunciation to students Teacher 37% 51% 2% 0% student 30% 51% 8% 0% Fact 2 Teachers must try to obtain regional accent-free language proficiency at all times. Teacher 22% 44% 31% 3 % student 16% 43% 31% 8% Fact 3 Students’ pronunciation should sound like standard English Teacher 28% 50% 22 % 0% student 28% 50% 22 % 0% Above statistics show that most of the people give more emphasis on thecorrect pronunciation but in doing so they sometime ashamed of their incorrectpronunciation and therefore don’t use the English in classroom. One of myfriends from Jessor cannot pronounce “Which” exactly that is why he alwayskeeps him away from using the word. This is a simple example but this thingshappen very frequently in our classroom. Now move onto another thing… Cultural materials and integration of culture Culture and language are the two sides of acoin.
We cannot think of language without considering culture and culturalmaterial. As a means of teaching and learning language, culture can be one ofthe major elements through which language teaching can be done very easily. Someof the cultural contents in teaching English may seem irrelevant to students;but it is obvious that we cannot learn language without using culture. We seein university, English is taught through literature which is no way differentfrom using culture in learning language. Sometimes there may be culturalconflicts or total presentation of English culture may not be possible but theminimum use of English culture may help the students to learn English by heart.Moreover as English is taught as an international language, cultural transgressionmay obviously be possible.
That should not be our basic concern since we aretend to new globalized world day by day. The English language has transgressedthe boarder of English and their culture is not the same like before. So in ourcase, it should not be the matter of concern and therefore the classroomsshould emphasize more on the source culture and the international targetcultures for teaching and learning the language better. Now we can seehow, in present situation, the incorporation of English culture is justified bythe EIL teacher and learner. Subjects Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Fact 1 English speaking countries’ cultures should be integrated in higher secondary level Teacher 21% 34% 49% 55% 17% 7% 13% 4% Student More or less manystudents agreed on incorporating the English culture for better learning thelanguage. My next observation is… Attitudes towards choosing textbooks Text book is veryimportant for both teacher and learners in EIL teaching. Many EIL expertsbelieve that in teaching English or any foreign language, syllabus should beconsisted with wide range of books and those text should be regard less of anyculture. Books of native language can be very helpful for the study of EIL.
Andagain some of the experts give emphasis on local English writing for learninglanguage. This is very clear that the local writing books in English aredifferent from the native writers’. Native books must be containing the Englishculture which may be different from the culture and situation of the EILlearner in Bangladesh. This is of course right. Many scholars argue that localtextbooks reflect the needs of the learner and use of English in the local contextand therefore it enable learners to use English to express themselves withtheir individual identity both in intra-national and international society. Toinvestigate whether our students and teachers accept this suggestion of takingnative books or local books, majority of the students follow the local bookswhile teachers are to take the native books.
Subjects Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Fact 1 textbooks published in English speaking countries Teacher 15% 24% 38% 29% 19% 11% 2% 9% student We see an average percent of thelanguage teachers and students both want to have native writers book forlearning language. Now move to next issue… Language knowledge and Pedagogy of EIL Language teachingis not all about knowing a language properly rather it is much related with thepedagogy of teaching the language effectively. In Bangladesh many of thestudents go to the British Council or many other places for more effectivelearning; but most of the cases 16 to 20 classes don’t improve any one’s languageskill to that much as they expect to be. On the other hand, we see our collegelevel syllabus and the teaching instructions are not able to make out theexpected goal of language learning for students. The pedagogical procedure isnot properly working with the present situation where some basic changes inteaching and learning are quintessential.
So that here in Bangladesh theteaching policy of EIL has become more important than the linguistic knowledge.My survey shows that while most of the teachers are trying to develop theirlinguistic knowledge but the student argues on changing the pedagogy ofteaching the target language. Subjects Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Fact 1 teachers should focus more on language knowledge than on the pedagogy Teacher 11% 14% 39% 33% 37% 31% 2% 1% student Today’s English Medium and Bangali Medium Education system This is one ofthe most interesting parts of my paper as the question arises many paradoxicalthinking among the teachers and students. The most common answer on this topicwas about the environment prepared by the English medium education system. Manyof the language learners argue that English environment prepared by the Englishmediums is the basic key point which creates the distinction of linguisticability between the English medium students and those who are from bangalimedium.
Again many of other argue that environment can not be the only catalystto create such distinction because many of the persons in our country whoreached to peak of their profession are not from the English environment buttheir systematic education level takes themselves to have enough proficiency inlanguage learning. Therefore this issue becomes much contradictory although thefact is obvious that environment is quintessential for learning a language. Subjects Participants Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Fact 1 English environment has created linguistics difference Teacher 54% 67% 29% 19% 10% 6% 1% student So we see English environment is thebasic thing that our colleges should manage for the students’ better learningof English language. Teacher Model for English leaching The questionstill remains confounding if Native English teacher is good for the people whoare learning English as their second language. In the question of teachermodel, many of our prominent teachers agrees on hiring native speaking teacherfor making the student more efficient in learning language.
Yousuf Alichowdhury in a conversation with him says that bilingual teacher can be a goodmodel but native English teachers are better. It is always better to have a nativeteacher but the fact becomes less influential when the native teaches at highersecondary level. A number of teachers believe that a native English teacher canmake the students used to with the proper English pronunciation and environmentthan those who don’t have this opportunity; but the fact is that it is not okayand possible in Bangladeshi college level for all time and for all case. Moreover,for this reason many teachers added that our government should hire some nativespeaker for teaching English more effectively. Subjects Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Fact 1 Native speaking teachers are more effective teachers for language students Teacher 9% 21% 31% 34% 53% 38% 4% 6% student Fact 2 Government should hire native speaking teachers from English Teacher 3% 9% 19% 32% 39% 25% 8% 3% student Fact 3 Bilingual non-native speaking teachers are better models to my students on learning English. Teacher 57% 22% 31% 41% 7% 9% 2% 5% student Basically we needmore efficient bilingual teacher for teaching the students in higher secondarythat means in college level. Native teacher can do good for some students butthe fact becomes clear when we see many students haven’t got the expected goalafter taking course from some native speakers.
Conclusion In conclusion, I should say that thisis very obvious that we cannot fully transgress all of our boundaries inlearning English language. But through this paper I tried to show some pointsto which our education policy maker could give their glance to make our younglearners better and to improve their ability to receive English as anInternational language. Though I know this paper has some limitations in takingout the real situation but I have tried to maximize my scopes and opportunitiesto reach my expected goal. At the last point, I want give thanksto Prof.
Shajahan Khan, Prof. Md. Yousuf Ali Chowdhury and Asst. Prof.
DelwaraDipti from Dhaka City College for assisting me to have a survey on teacher andI want to thank the student of Dhaka City College for co operating me. If you do have any queries I will gladto answer those. Thank you… M1EILis part of what NOW since I am teaching? M2 M3Givethe sources of the findings M4Makecomplex sentence M5Howdo I know it? M6Needsrereading M7Re-readand re write M8Re-writein more logical way M9Usecorrect pronounce reference M10Changethe thematic point of view M11Re-writethe instruction M12 M13Reconsiderthe line M14Needslogical hypothesis M15Whatprofessional competencies, explain and give examplles? M16Reconsiderthe questions M17Cannotgive any solution but show what is the situation