Introduction: More thantwo thirds of earth’s surface is covered with water. The earth’s five oceansand its seas, rivers that comes from rainfall, from snow and ice melting.not forgetting the lakes and ground water even swamps. Theyare all connected to present the aquatic area which is a home of huge number ofliving things.The water is very effective and importantmolecule for all organism and it is essential part in life. Most of theorganisms cannot survive without the presence of water. Although, they don’t live inside it such as human andplants and different organisms, they have provided with food from inside it,also passengers and goods are often carried by sea.
Thebiodiversity of aquatic ecosystems is one of Earth’s biggest treasures. Whenbiodiversity word comes on people’s minds, first thing they think about is therainforests. The rainforests contain huge amounts of biodiversity, and morespecies than we will probably ever be able to proliferate. But have you everthought that similar biodiversity can be found in the oceans? For example,coral reefs have been described as the rainforests of the sea because they arehome to a huge array of marine life.
But coral reefs, like aquatic ecosystems,are easily affected by outside factors.Abioticfactors are ingredients of a natural environment that are not alive. In otherwords, physical or chemical parts of the environment that affect the organismsthat are in that environment. For aquatic ecosystems, these factors includelight levels, water flow rate, temperature, dissolved oxygen, acidity (pH),salinity and depth.An aquatic ecosystemis a community of living organisms socializing with each other and their surroundingsunder the water.
There are two main kinds ofaquatic ecosystems called saltwater ecosystem and freshwater ecosystems.Wet lands are areas that are permantly or regularly underfresh or salty water, such as bonds, rivers, bogs, marshes, estuaries andmangrove swamps.While the openocean starts at the edge of continental shelf where the seabed plunges suddenlydown the continental slope to greater depths.
Its divided into three zones: thebenthic zone is at the bottom, above that the demersal zone, and the pelagiczone is uppermost.Ocean currentsare driven by a combination of winds and the earth’s rotation, and they are regulatingpermanent or continuous movement of ocean’swater. The motion of the ocean water ispromoted by forces acting on the water counting the breaking waves, salinitydifferences, Coriolis effects, the wind and temperaturesWhile ocean surfacecurrents are like large rivers many kilometers wide, on average 100m deep and flowingat 15 km per hour. also it affect only the top 100m so the ocean deep currentinvolve the whole ocean However, the major currents are spilt oneither side of equator into huge rings called gyres.This essay isconcentrating on comparing between fresh and salt water and the features thatinclude each ecosystem. we will discuss a few elements that impact aquaticecosystems. concentrated on the abiotic factors and how they affect aquaticlife. These are the factors that cause a deep ocean to be totally differentfrom a shallow lake.
Plus, it willinclude the types of Ocean currents and their effects in order to work toneutralize the temperature difference between different areas in the oceanssuch the winds do on land. As a body of water warms and cools slowly it’s anexcellent, and fairly stable, transmitter of heat and cold which feeds into theweather system. Discussion:Water covers about 71% of our planet. The freshwater covers only 2.5% of the total amount of water on earth which is a smallfraction compared to the salt water which covers the rest of the amount ofwater.
The fresh water and the salt water are the two categories that theaquatic ecosystem is classified to, however, the brackish water occurs when thefresh water mixed with salt water. There are very huge differences betweenfresh water and salt water, and that differences are arise from the types oforganisms that lives in the two types of water, the salinity content, and thedensity. But the main and the most important differences is the salinitycontent. Both types of water contain salt which is sodium chloride, but thesalt water contains higher amount of salt than the fresh water have, as aresult, the conductivity of the salt water is higher than the fresh water.
If aperson drinks the salt water for example ocean water, that could affect itshealthy and also it can be deadly because that can cause dehydration to thehuman body.The current direction is effected by theshoreline; the global conveyer belt is a result of ocean currents that influxesfor thousands of kilometers which is essential in verify the climate of otherregions of the earth. Ocean currents can be on the surface of the ocean or inthe deep waters like 300 meters in depth.
The currents can also move in bothhorizontally or vertically depending on the reasons. While the shape of theocean topography, basin, and the land masses bordering the Ocean are influencesby the ocean currents. The masses of cold water that moves from high latitudetowards equator is called ocean currents, it absorbs the heat that comes to thetropics then it will cool the air above. The cold currents are created whilethe air circulating the eastern side of the subtropical high is inflated overcold water mass, therefore drawn toward the equator. The warm currents aremasses of warm water that have high temperature that moves off from the equator.
When the cold saline water becomes dense and sinks the warm current will be formed,in addition it will permit the light warm water to influx in the opposite way,commonly faraway the equator. Ocean currents could affect climateMain text:The characteristics of freshwater and saltwaterecosystems:brackish water has a higher salinity contentthan the fresh water, but less salinity than salt water. This condition iscommonly occurs in Baltic sea, black sea, and Caspian sea. There are differenttypes of organisms that live in such as: northern water snake, Caspian seal,and bull shark which they are some examples of animals and red tiger lotus,anacharis, and red mangrove and these are examples of plants that lives in thistype of water.The fresh water has a very low salinity contentand it is usually less than 1% compared to the salinity of the salt water thatis approximately 3.
5%, which meansthat 35 grams of salt must dissolved in one liter. Also, there are many regionsin fresh water such as: ponds and lakes, steam and rivers, and wetland. Thewetland is the land that is saturated and appear wet for part of the year.There are different types of the wetland such as marshes, swamps, and bogs.The lakes are classifiedaccording to the type of nutrient state into two types: The lakes that are poorof nutrients called Oligotrophic. The other type is the lakes that are rich ofnutrients called Eutrophic. Different life zones are appeared in the lakes andponds.
The first type of zone was littoral zone it is the region which isnearest to the shore, different type of protozoans, invertebrates, fishes, andreptiles are lived there. Secondly, the limnetic zone which is makes the sunlitbody of the lake, some small fishes such as minnows, and killifish. These smallfishes survive by eating the plankton, and they can be as a food for the bigfishes like bass. The third zone is the profundal zone which is the region thatis at the lower level of light penetration, other organism can adept in thisarea like the zoo plankton, invertebrates, and fishes such as: catfish andwhitefish. Finally, the benthiczone which is consists of the matters that settles in the bottom of the waterlike the dead organisms that accumulate in the bottom of the lake, sand,inorganic sediment.
Mostly the fresh wateris precipitation from atmosphere is different form such as: mist, rain, andsnow. Then, this dissolved material which was formed from the atmosphere (freshwater) also fallen as mist, rain, and snow. There are a lot of organisms thatcapable to live in fresh water, for example plants, such as: cattail, waterlilies, and blue flag iris. Also some animals could live in this type of watersuch as: hippopotamus, golden fish, otters. However, the saltwater composed of a high salinity content compared to fresh water and it is thetype of water that is the most abundant in our earth. Also, it is conserned themost bio diversity environment.
Many organisms are lived in this type of waterlike: seaweeds, coral reef, shortfin, Mako shark, octopus, and killer whale.Some type of fishes lives in salt water. They have less salt in their bodytissue than the surrounding water because the environment that lives in is varysalty that is why the water drown from their body tissue.
Moreover, because ofthe dissolved salt which is sodium chloride, the saltwater is denser than freshwater. So, this give an explanation of the specific volume of salt water thatis appear more heaver than the same volume of fresh water. Seawater haveseveral ions like chloride (Cl?), sodium (Na+),sulfate (SO24?), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), and potassium (K+). The viscosityof salt water is higher than that of fresh water this is due to its highersalinity. The density of salt water also is higher than the fresh water. Thefreezing point of the salt water is lower than that of pure water also, theboiling point of the salt water is higher than the fresh water.
In some cases, the human bodies can float inseawater, however, this can not occur in fresh water this is due to salts thatexists in salt water that make it denser. Oceans water is an example of saltwater that is consists of different types of zones that organisms can live ineach zone can accumulate different types of organisms. The oceans watercomprised of four zones. The first zone is epipelagic zone (0-120 m), this typeof zone does not contain a high concentration of phytoplankton and has adeficiency of inorganic nutrients. The second type of ocean’s zoneis mesopelagic zone (120-1200 m) that varies type of organisms like somespecies of shrimps, squids, and fishes that can adapted to the absence oflight. The third zone is the bathypelagic zone (1200-3000 m) it is deep and darkarea that some organisms live there such as: sperm whale, anglerfish, andviperfish. The fourth zone is the abyssal zone (3000- bottom). Organisms likeglass sponges, sea cucumber, and tripod fish live there.
Our county was a good source for the freshwater that was attract the people to settle in our area and help in farming especiallyin the north of Bahrain. Ain Umm Al-Sujur, Ain Abu Zaydan, and Ain Adhari were the mostimportant sources of fresh water. Nowadays, Bahrain depend mostly on the non-conventional sources of water. This is due to the highpopulation of the people in a certain area that lid to the depletion of freshwater. The salt water was widely abundant in Bahrain because it is an islandthat the sea water surrounded it in all the side.
Howocean currents can effect on climate and weather?!Ocean Currents Affect Climate by horizontalcurrent moving southward or northward that is brings warm or cold water forextremely long distance. The supplant cold water will cool the air whereas thewarm water will increase the air temperature.For example, water from the tropical atlanticsmoves from the north over the gulf stream immerse the western Europe shorestherefor creating a mild climate. The mild climate increases the temperature ofthe region greater than the regions across the Atlantic but on the samelatitude. Formation ofdeep water current occurs during winter the surface is cooled and makes thesurrounding water denser. When the water surface become thicker, convectiveoverturning process takes place that the dense water mixing downwards extendingto the bottom.
The dense mixed water expansion out in the bottom of the ocean.When this mixing is done in higher latitude, a circulation pattern is formedwhere warm water moves pole-wards from the tropics therefore, surrendering heatto the atmosphere produces in the transportation of heat pole-wards. The cyclerepeats over and over impact the transfer of heat from the equator to thehighlands.Movement of ocean current is affected by salinity,wind, topography and earth’srotation influences the current flow by bringing cold water from the depths tothe surface by pushing away the surface water. That’s why the ocean is colder on the east coast than the west coast. The colder water comedown and moves towards Indian, pacific and Atlantic basin. the changes incurrent in influences the coastal climate by carrying lots of heat.
Ocean current have a considerable effect on theweather. The greatest as well confirmed flows set in the movement by the windand the rotation of earth that takes the enormous rotation currents form to thesouth and north of the equator in the Sothern and northern hemispheres, and thecurrent in the east flowing is in the southern ocean.one of the mostsignificant weather making characteristic of these large current is theconveyance of cold and heat.
Moreover, the ocean impacts landwardtemperature by conservative them, like a large body of water warms and coolsfar less quickly than earthly environments. The coastal areas frequently see lower temperature in summer and inwinter is warmer. Additional affect can form from the great ocean currents ofthe world. From equatorial areas the currents cantransport balmy air far north. For example, The Gulf Stream that produce in theGulf of Mexico, allow coral reef formalization off Florida and Bermuda–farthernorth than the normal tropical zone of reef development–and warms northwesternEurope beyond, say, the portion of North America at the same latitude. In fact,evidence propose that when gulf stream flow is reduced it can have helpedtrigger that called little ice age of northwestern Europe from 13thto 19th centuries. In this period the temperature was continuouslyreduced as a result the winter become longer and growing season decrease andthe mountain glaciers and other major effects increase.
The conflicting airtemperature encourage by wide traveling currents of the ocean effect cloudcover and precipitation. There are many great rotating currents in the world’s oceans, that havewestward-flowing waters at the equator that changed poleward in conveyer-beltfashion to come around. Where they skirt continents, these gyres as theycalled, that can significantly affect the local weather. moreover, southwesterly winds flowing onshore in southwesternAfrica are cooled by the Benguela Current, the northward arm of the SouthAtlantic Gyre.
And this is forms persistent fog over the Namib Desert, supplycritical moisture to the environment and also demonstrate a navigationalhazard, as the wrecks of Namibia’s Skeleton Coast attest.In addition, boundaries of the warm Gulf Streamflowing northeastward and the cold southward Labrador Current in the NorthAtlantic is a result of fog. Gulf Stream cools after it was warm as it driftson the Labrador, condensing. like in the Namib, this orderly fog together withicebergs shed from Greenland, chronic to that stretch of ocean that make forsometimes sinister seafaring conditions.Warm temperature carries by ocean currents canassist atmospheric instability and the potential for storms and precipitation.
This is the situation case for air masses on the western boundary currents ofthe North Pacific and North Atlantic gyres, the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream.Conclusion:Aquaticecosystem is sliced to 2 aquatic systems which they are very diverse andimportant to our lives. marine ecosystems are chopped into coastal and oceans,the estuary is where fresh water meets salt water.
Ocean isdivided into 3 zones depending on several agents. One important factor is theocean current that plays several movements to work the ecosystemocean currentsshift in a circular way. during the over welling cold.
while nutrients-rich ofwaters goes up in the surface.Finally, the water plays anarray of vital roles in ecosystems across the planet. Although many othersubstances are necessary for life and for ecosystems to exist, without waternothing else would function to produce life as we know it.And becauseocean currents lead to inflow of nutritious water (water with planktons andother kinds at the bottom of the food chain) to places where there is less,bringing fish with it in a seasonal manner of great importance for marine lifeand the worlds fishermen.