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Introduction    Many people don’t know how important New York’s role was in American history. New York was founded hundreds of years ago by Peter Minuit. New York has been a key part of many wars, battles, and changes in society.  New York was one of the original thirteen colonies and is located in the Northeastern United States. It is bordered by New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Within New York City there are five different boroughs that include Manhattan, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The state has a population of about nineteen million people. The state’s capital is Albany. This case study will explain major events in time from the Colonial Period ( the 1600s) to World War 1 (1918) that affected the political, economic, religious, social, intellectual, and artistic categories in New York. Political    During colonial society at around the 18th century (the 1700s) New York was one of the thirteen colonies. At this time Great Britain owned the colonies. Britain started to be cruel to the colonies by taxing them and taking all their goods. One act, called the Stamp Act, had a big impact on all colonists especially the colonists of New York. This act created the Sons of Liberty which was a secret organization that set up a protest against Britain and their abuses over the colonies. The Sons of Liberty resorted to violence and intimidation, such as tarring and feathering. The Sons of Liberty exerted a large amount of pressure and force in New York City.  In October 1765 many delegates met up in New York City’s Federal Hall to discuss the Stamp Act and what should be done about it.  This was a big step for the thirteen colonies because this was the first official time that elected representatives all came together to discuss an issue. The outcome of this meeting was the Declaration of Rights and Grievances which said that Great Britain had no right to tax the colonies.  These are all impacts that New York had on the Revolutionary War. During the war, a series of battles occurred in New York. Patriot leaders Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in upstate New York.  The Battle of Long Island was fought August 27, 1776. This battle was fought because the British believed that they could take over New York. It was the largest battle of the war. This was a big loss for George Washington and his army. This loss caused many continental soldiers to be captured under British control (The Role of New York in the American Revolution).  Shortly after this George Clinton became the governor of New York City in 1777. After the war was over Evacuation day occurred in New York. On November 25, 1783, the rest of the British soldiers from the Revolutionary war left New York. This was a famous day in New York during the 18th Century. The day became an official holiday and schools and workers got the day off (Margino). The famous Federal Hall in New York City was created on September 25, 1789. The building has held many political events in the 18th and 19th century. Events such as the Stamp Act Congress in 1765 occurred in the Federal Hall. The Bill of Rights was drafted by the first congress at Federal Hall. Also, George Washington was inaugurated as the country’s first President on April 30, 1789, at the Federal Hall (History & Culture).  In 1802 the United States Military Academy was created, called West Point. It was the first military school in New York. It was founded by Congress to educate and train young men to study military science. It was located at West Point New York (U.S. Military Academy Established).  In 1848, at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls New York, the national woman’s rights convention occurred with about 200 women. The convention was organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. These women were two abolitionists. They created the Declaration of Sentiments and Grievances which said men and women should have equal rights (Seneca Falls Convention Begins). After this, the Civil War was right around the corner. On April 12, 1861, the civil war began. It was a war between the north and the south. New York was a part of the north who did not like slavery and fought against it. New York’s role in the Civil War was was very important to the Union’s win. “New York contributed more soldiers, sustained more casualties, and also contributed more war materiel and financial support for the war than any other state” (Dearstyne). Starting in 1892 over twelve million immigrants entered the United States through Ellis Island. This created a big wave of immigration in New York. Ellis Island is a small island in the New York Harbor. This was a new gateway for many people to immigrate to New York City (Ellis Island History). Economic During the colonial society, there were many jobs that stimulated New York’s economy. Most colonists made their wages by fur, lumber trading, shipping, the slave trade, and as merchants and tradesmen in the colonies towns. Jobs included printers, clockmakers, barbers, tanners, milliners, dyers and menders (New York Colony).  New York had certain natural resources that helped their economies such as good farmland, timber, furs, coal and iron ore  (New York Colony). The New York Stock Exchange was founded 17 May 1792 when 24 stockbrokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement on Wall Street in New York City. Famously, they met beneath a Buttonwood tree and formed a centralized exchanged for the burgeoning securities market in the United States. The New York Stock Exchange is still in New York and a big part of economics (New York Stock Exchange). New York had a very beneficial location for trade because they had many bodies of water surrounding them such as the Hudson River and the Atlantic ocean. The new inventions of transportation boosted New York’s economy making it the greatest trading state in the country. Vesicles such as the Clermont and the Erie canal were made in the beginning of the 1800s (The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica). These vesicles were much cheaper because shipping by sea was cheaper than shipping by land. These ships help carry passengers and goods all through New York. In 1873 there was a huge economic problem because of the Panic of 1873.  The failure of Jay Cooke and Company caused the Panic of 1873. Jay Cooke and Company was the country’s most important investment banking firm. The firm was the backer of the Northern Pacific Railroad (United States History) and handled most of the government’s wartime loans. “The New York Stock Exchange was closed for 10 days. Credit dried up, foreclosures were common and banks failed. Factories closed their doors, costing thousands of workers’ jobs. The volume of destitute people soon overwhelmed the abilities of charities to function. Most of the major railroads failed” (United States History). All of these problems continued for a couple of years and caused a depression until most of the problems were solved in 1878. On October 27, 1904, New York City Mayor George McClellan created one of the largest American systems of transportation called the subway. This system helped transport people through all of New York. This helped the economy because passengers of the subway had to pay a fee to be able to travel (New York City Subway Opens). ReligiousThere were no strict religious restrictions in New York’s history. Many New Yorkers practiced different religions. New York was not dominated by a specific religion which gave religious freedom and equality for Quakers, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews and others (New York Colony). Many people called Puritans started to settle in New York and all of the thirteen colonies. The Puritans were Protestant and tried to spread their religion in the colonies. Protestant beliefs were different than the Catholic beliefs such as their view of the Pope and the Bible. When Puritans came to New York they tried to build Churches and buildings that supported Protestants (The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries).  Religion played a role in the Revolutionary War by offering a moral sanction for opposition to the British for the average American that revolution was justified in the sight of God. As a recent scholar has observed, “by turning colonial resistance into a righteous cause, and by crying the message to all ranks in all parts of the colonies, ministers did the work of secular radicalism and did it better” (Galloway). They are many different types of churches and chapels in New York. One is St. Paul’s Chapel.  In the mid-1700s, as Manhattan’s population began moving north, Trinity built St. Paul’s in 1766. St. Paul’s stands at Broadway and Fulton Street. It is the only colonial-era church still in Manhattan (History of St. Paul’s Chapel). Another is called The Fleet Street Church now known as the First African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, Brooklyn, New York, it was organized in 1885 when its 15 members made application to the New York Annual Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church for admission to the A.M.E. Zion Connection (First AME Zion Church New York).  Another was the St.Patrick’s Cathedral. St. Patrick’s Cathedral was opened formally on May 25, 1879. The newspapers hailed the new Cathedral as “the noblest temple ever raised in any land to the memory of Saint Patrick, and as the glory of Catholic America.” (Historical Timeline).This was how religion impacted New York. Social  During colonial society, there were a couple of different social classes. The upper class was comprised of very wealthy and rich people. These people could vote and could hold public office. The middle class could vote but few held public offices. The majority of this class owned farms and small businesses. The lower class could not vote or run for public office. Many of them did not own property or were able to read and write.  Also, indentured servants and slaves had basically no rights and did not get paid well (Colonial Society). Men did heavy field labor, woodwork, repair, and worked with large edge tools. Women typically prepared food and clothing, and food preservation (O’Malley).  Slaves were a big part of New York even though they had no rights, no wages, and no respect at all. Slaves slept in the cellars and attics of townhouses or above farmhouse kitchens in the countryside. They virtually did all of the work of many households, bringing in the firewood, the water, and the food; cleaning the house and the clothing; removing the wastes. They were very important to the work of early craftsmen and manufacturers, and many became skilled artisans themselves. And they performed almost all the heavy labor of building New York’s infrastructure. For the most part, New York and a majority of the northern states want to abolish slavery. New York eventually outlawed slavery in 1827 (History of Slavery in New York). Women had fewer rights than men in New York. Women wanted to have equal rights with men. In 1848 New York hosted the National Woman’s rights convention. The convention was organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The Declaration of Sentiments and Grievances was created and signed by the assembly. The convention also passed 12 resolutions which called for equal rights for women (Seneca Falls Convention Begins).Intellectual  There were many intelligent people who had an influence and impact on New York. These are three people that had an impact on New York. William James was a philosopher who was born in New York in 1842. In psychology, James’s work is of course dated, but it is dated as is Galileo’s in physics or Charles Darwin’s in biology because it is the originative matrix of the great variety of new developments that are the current vogue. In philosophy, his positive work is still prophetic (Kallen). This was his impact through the course of his career.  John Dewey was a philosopher was not born in New York but performed a lot of his studies in New York His fields of study were the philosophy of education and progressive education. One of his discoveries was Dewey developed a metaphysics that examined characteristics of nature that encompassed human experience but were either ignored by or misrepresented by more traditional philosophers (Gouinlock). Hannah Arendt was political scientist and philosopher in New York.  This is some work that she did The Human Condition, published in 1958, was a wide-ranging and systematic treatment of what Arendt called the active life. She defended the classical ideals of work, citizenship, and political action against what she considered a debased obsession with mere welfare. Like most of her work, it owed a great deal to the philosophical style of Heidegger (The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica). This was her impact on society. Art This section will talk about art in New York. John Street Theatre was built by David Douglas on December 7, 1767. The theater has performed many shows for the thirty years that it lasted in New York until it was replaced in 1798. The theatre was the beginning of theatre in New York (The Cambridge Guide to American Theatre). The Statue of Liberty is a symbol of freedom in the New York Harbor. Frenchman Edouard de Laboulaye proposed the idea it for the United States in 1865.  Then ten years later sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was ordered to design a sculpture with 1876 in mind for completion, to commemorate the centennial of the American Declaration of Independence. The Statue was named “Liberty Enlightening the World” and was an effort between America and France (Statue History). The Hudson River school contains a group of skilled painters that have worked for over several generations in New York. An outgrowth of the Romantic movement, the Hudson River school was the first native school of painting in the United States; it was strongly nationalistic both in its proud celebration of the natural beauty of the American landscape and in the desire of its artists to become independent of European schools of painting (The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica). This is how art impacted the state of New York. Conclusion This case study explained the major events in time from the Colonial Period ( the 1600s) to World War 1 (1918) that affected the political, economic, religious, social, intellectual, and artistic categories in New York. The case study showed how all of the events impacted the state. All of these events helped shape the future for New York and made it the state that it is today.

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