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Introduction

Infectious diseases is one of the problems in the field of health
from time to time continue to grow (Zeedan et al., 2016). Recently,
multidrug resistance bacteria are become a main problem which is limited the
option for effective treatment in human population worldwide (Chovanová et al.,
2013 and Tenover, 2006). Therefore, it is essential to search the other
alternative treatments that can potentially be useful in the treatment of these
problematic bacterial infections. In fact, during the last few years, medicinal herb plants are good treatment and low side effect
compared to chemical drugs (Kooti et al.,2014 and Beyrami-Miavagi et al.,2014).

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Medicinal Plant
products derived from barks, flowers, roots, leaves, seeds, fruits are rich in
a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids,
flavonoids, phenols and quinones (Cowan,1999) that
local population uses  to treat  the several diseases and infection (Criagg and
David, 2001 and Nivo  et al.,2015).

 

Daucus is a genus
of herbaceous plants belongs to family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) (ref). The
species Daucus carota L., commonly known as carrot, is recognized worldwide due
to its roots widely used for both food and medicinal purposes6

 

Carrots are an
excellent source of vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids).
Carrots have also a unique combination of three flavonoids, kaempferol,
quercetin and luteolin (Criagg and David, 2001and Horbowicz et al.,2008). They
are also rich in other phenols, including chlorogenic, caffeic and
p-hydroxybenzoic acids along with numerous cinnamic acid derivates. Among
hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivates, chlorogenic acid represents 42.2% to
61.8% of total phenolic compounds detected in different carrot tissues Zhang,
and Hamauzu,2004; Gonçalves,2010).The seeds have cardio-protective,
hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects(Singh
et al.,2012).

 

Fennel
(Foeniculum vulgare Miller), a plant belonging to the family Apiaceae, has a
long history of herbal uses. Traditionally, fennel seeds are used as anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, carminative, diuretic and antispasmodic agents. Recently there has
been considerable interest in the antioxidant potential and antimicrobial
activities of fennel seed extracts (Anwar et al., 2009).This herb  also contains numerous chemical  compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids,
hydroxycinnamic acids, coumarin and tannin(Rahimi and  Ardekani,2014). Phenolic acids include
3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,
3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid, 1, 4-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,
5-O-di-caffeoylquinicacid. Its flavonoid contains eriodictyol-7-rutinoside,
quercetin-3-rutinoside and rosmarinic acid (Faudale et al.,2008).

A series of
studies showed that F. Vulgare effectively controls numerous infectious
disorders of bacterial, fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin   3-7It has antioxidant, antitumor,
chemopreventive, cytoprotective, hepato protective, hypoglycemic, and
oestrogenic activities.4-12

Roby et al.
23investigated antimicrobial effect of the methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether,
and hexane extracts of seed of F. vulgare against two species of Gram negative
bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi ), two species of Gram positive
bacteria(Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus), one species of yeast (
Candida albicans ), and one species of mold ( Aspergillus flavus ). The
methanolic extract showed more effective antimicrobial activity than the other
extracts. The results from the disc diffusion method, followed by measurement
of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), indicated that Bacillus cereus and
Aspergillus flavus were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, showing the
largest inhibition zones and the lowest MIC values. Least activity was
exhibited against Escherichia coli , with the smallest inhibition zones and the
highest MIC value 23 new 11

Allium L. is
the largest and important representative genus of the Alliaceae family
comprises 700 species; each with different tastes, forms and colors;
nonetheless, they are close in biochemical, phytochemical, and nutraceutical
properties (Tepe et al., 2005).Medically, Allium hirtifolium is an important
medicinal plant whose edible parts are leaves and bulbs is used as a delicious
additive for foods  like yogurt and pickles
(Salunkhe and kadam,2008 and Ebrahimi  et
al.,2011) Phyto-medical compounds which are reported in the bulbs of Allium
hirtifolium including linolenic, linoleic, palmitoleic, palmitic, oleic and
stearic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, shallomin furostanal, spirostanal, sulphur
containing compounds(thiosulfinates), and flavonoids (Jafariana et al.2003;
Amin and Kapadnis2005 ; Barile et al.2005; Ebrahimi et al. 2008; Kazemi et
al.2010; Amin et al.2012; Asgarpanah and Ghanizadeh2012) file sa new

 

Alliumis still
being employed in folk medicine all over the world for the treatment of a
variety of diseases. Allium hirtifolium has been shown to have various
pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial 23, anticancer
24, antiinflammatory 25, antiatherosclerotic 26, antidiabetic 27,
immunomodulatory 28, antinociceptive 29, and acetylcholinesterase
inhibitiory properties 25.Ismail et al.(2013) examined antibacterial activity
of the Allium hirtifolium extract by disk diffusion and microdilution broth
assays. It was demonstrated that Allium hirtifolium hydromethanolic extract was
effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including
methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus
aureus (MSSA),Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcusepidermidis, Streptococcus
pneumoniae,Escherichia coli, Escherichia coliO157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium,
Proteus mirabilis, andKlebsiella pneumoniae. Specially, the minimum
concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88mg/mL
for most of the gram-positive bacteria

 

Nigella
sativa(N. sativa; family Ranunculaceae)  is
a plant that is grown worldwide primarily in the Middle East, Mediterranean regions,
Southern Europe, India, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. For
centuries, medicinal plants have taken part in the (Ahmad & Beg, 2013). Numerous
studies have shown the presence of different active pharmaceutical ingredients
in the N. sativa seeds(black seed)  including thymoquinone, thymol, limonene,
carvacrol, p-cymene, alpha-pinene, 4-terpineol, longifolene, and tanethole
benzene (Toma,2010;   Randhawa &
Alghamdi, 2011and Gharby  et al.,2015).Moreover, other phytochemical studies have indicated that the plant
seeds contain two classes of alkaloids, including isoquinoline alkaloids such
as  nigellimine-N-oxide, and py-razole
alkaloids such as nigellidine and nigellicine (Maliket al.,1992and Malik et
al.,1995)

A wide range of studies have been conducted concerning the
biological activities and curative properties of black cumin that use for treatment
of many  diseases (S. Ahmad & Beg,
2013). seed extract has several beneficial biological effects including
antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial,
anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilatory, hepatoprotective,
antihypertensive, renal protective, and antioxidant (Ahmad  et al.,2013 and El-Far et al.,2017).The
methanol extract of Nigella sativa are used for the treatment of some bacterial
and fungal diseases (Paarakh,2010).Additionally, this is uncovered that the
majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of
thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil(Beheshti
et al.,2016)

Cinnamomum is a
genus in the family Lauraceae, which is cultivated in many tropical countries
(Masood et al.,2006; ViJakhetia et al.,2010; Fei et al.,2011)The  bark of its tree  has been applied in food, seasonings,
cosmetics and medical industries. There are two main varieties of cinnamon: the
Ceylon or true cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum Blume), which is grown in Sri
Lanka and Southern India and cassia (Cinnamom
aromaticum Ness), which is grown in China, Indonesia, and Vietnam.
When dried cassia species, rolls into a tubular form known as a quill or
cinnamon stick.1,3  

The most
important antioxidant constituents of cinnamon are cinnamaldehyde and
trans-cinnamaldehyde (Cin), which are present in the essential oil, thus
contributing to the fragrance and to the various biological activities  observed with cinnamon (Yeh et al., 2013). The
active chemicals in C. cassia has been reported to  have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant,
anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-pyretic, antimicrobial, anti-angiogenic and
larvicidal activity (Lee et al., 2007; Ng and Wu, 2011) Cinnamom cassia has been shown to have anti-microbial  properties
against various pathogens. Ethanol extract of C. cassia has shown to have
strong activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion method was
employed to demonstrate this effect (Sharma et al., 2009)

 

2. Materials and methods

This study
carried out during the period between March to June in 2007. The Essential
Prophetic Medicine (PM) materials were selected based on research   and These
materials were purchased from markets as well.

 

Extraction of cinnamon

One liter of the
80% ethanol extraction fluid was mixed with 100 g of powder plant material the mixture
were kept for three days in tightly sealed vessel at room temperature at 20C,  protected from sunlight and mixed several times
daily . The mixture filtrated through muslin cloth then evaporation to dryness under
reduced pressure to remove the ethanol  (AL-Saghir
et al.,2009).

Extraction of Nigella sativa

       The seed
powders (100 g) was macerated in 800 mL ethanol (80%, v/v) for 72 hours, and
the mixture was subsequently filtered and concentratedin vacuo at 40C(Hosseinzadeh et al.,2013)

 

 

 

Extraction of  Allium hirtifolium

Allium
hirtifolium bulbs   fruits  were
purchased from a local market in Tehran.  Their scientific names were authenticated and
a  specimen was deposited at the Traditional
 Medicine and Materia Medica Research
Center,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(.  Allium hirtifolium bulbs were extracted twice
with ethanol (80%) at room temperature. The extract  was concentrated utilizing a rotary  evaporator and dried using a vacuum drying
oven(16,28) NEW 15A 80E

Extraction of D. carota

 

 D. carota seeds were collected from market ,
after that washed well with sterile distilled water. After drying under shade, then
they were blending with an electric blender. (15.0
g) macerated with 80% ethanol (450 mL) for 2-5 days. The extracts were subsequently
filtered and concentrated in vacuo at 40?C(Urban et al.,2008)

Extraction
of fennel seeds

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