INTRODUCTIONSix Sigma is a method used forreducing variation in manufacturing, service or other business processes. The projectsmeasure the cost benefit of improving processes that are producing substandardproducts or services. It is a statisticalmethod which involves varied business driven approach and the ability toimprove processes, reduce costs and increase the profits. This improvement toolis extensively utilized in manufacturing, industrial and services industry. · It is a set of techniques andtools used for process improvement.
It was presented by engineer BillSmith while working at Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made itvital to his business strategy at General Electric in 1995.· It seeks to improvethe quality of the output of a process by identification and elimination of thecauses of defect. It also minimizes the variability in manufacturing and businessprocesses.· The objective of each effective Six Sigma project isto produce statistically significant improvements in a process.
Over time,multiple Six Sigma projects produce virtually defect-free performance. · This is accomplishedthrough the use of two Six Sigma sub-methodologies: DMAIC and DMADV. · The Six Sigma DMAIC (Define,Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) process is an improvement system forexisting processes falling below specification and looking for incrementalimprovement.· The Six Sigma DMADV (Define,Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify) process is an improvement system used todevelop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. · It can also beemployed if a current process requires more than just incremental improvement.Both Six Sigma processes are executed by Six Sigma Green Belts and Six SigmaBlack Belts, and are overseen by Six Sigma Master Black Belts.
Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successfulimplementation: Executive Leadership includes the CEO and other members of top management. They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation. They also empower the other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements by transcending departmental barriers and overcoming inherent resistance to change.
Champions take responsibility for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner. The Executive Leadership draws them from upper management. Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts. Master Black Belts, identified by Champions, act as in-house coaches on Six Sigma.
They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They assist Champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts. Apart from statistical tasks, they spend their time on ensuring consistent application of Six Sigma across various functions and departments. Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects. They devote 100% of their valued time to Six Sigma. They primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution and special leadership with special tasks, whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma.
Green Belts are the employees who take up Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities, operating under the guidance of Black Belts. ABOUT WIPRO LTD. Wipro Ltd. is a leading global information technology, consulting andbusiness process Services Company headquarteredin Bengaluru, India. It harnessthe power of cognitive computing, hyper-automation, robotics, cloud, analyticsand emerging technologies to help their clients adapt to the digital world andmake it successful. It is recognized globally for its comprehensive portfolioof services, strong commitment to sustainability and good corporatecitizenship.
They have over 160,000 dedicated employees serving clients acrosssix continents. The companywas incorporated on 29 December 1945 in Amalner, Maharashtra by Mohamed Premjias ‘Western India Vegetable Products Limited’, later abbreviated to ‘Wipro’. Itwas initially set up as a manufacturer of vegetable and refined oils in Amalner,Maharashtra, India under the trade names of Kisan, Sunflower, and Camel.WhyWipro undertook Six Sigma? To reduce the data transfer time.
To reduce the risk. To avoid interpretation due to LAN/WAN downtime. For parallel availability of the switch for the other administrative tasks during the same period. What does Six Sigma mean at Wipro? To have products and services meet global benchmark. Ensure robust processes within the organisation. Consistently meet & exceed costumer expectation. Make quality a culture within.
CHALLENGES FACED DURINGIMPLEMENTATION OF SIX SIGMA PROGRAM: Changing the culture: Restructuring the organization culture, infrastructure, training and confidence building took time. Project Selection: Choosing a suitable project in the first year was a challenge. Wipro decided to select those projects which had higher chances of success and targeted to complete this project in a short time span. Training: Finding the right people and training those people presented a tough job at Wipro. Training was rolled out in 5 phases: Defining, measuring, analyzing, improving and controlling the process and lastly increasing customer satisfaction. Wipro implemented the SixSigma Program for different service lines: Developing New Processes Improving Existing Processes ReengineeringDifferent Methodologies Used By Wipro for ImplementingSix SigmaFor Developing New Processes: DEVELOPING SIX SIGMA SOFTWARE (DSSS METHODOLOGY): For software development that ensures defect free delivery and lower customer cost of application development. DESIGNING SIX SIGMA PROCESS AND PRODUCT (DSSP METHODOLOGY): For designing new products and processes.
DESIGN FOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND MANUFACTURABILITY (DCAM METHOD)For Improving ExistingProcesses: TRANSACTIONAL QUALITY USING SIX SIGMA (TQSS): For defect reduction in transactional processes. DMAIC: For process improvement in non-transactional process.For Reengineering:1. CROSS FUNCTIONAL PROCESS (CFP METHODOLOGY) SIX SIGMA PROCESS:The process followed for theimplementation of the above methodologies is explained below: Built the culture: Implementation of Six Sigma required support from high level managers. For this the company restructured the organisation and provided infrastructure, training and confidence in the process.
Selection of the project: For the selection of the right project the field data was collected, process map was developed and importance of the project was judged from the eyes of the customers. Resources: Resources were identified on the basis of short term and long term requirements. The project selected was a crucial factor in determining the resources required. Controlling: Wipro developed a team of experts for reviewing the projects.
It was done to see the timeliness of the project completion, targeting of gaps, weak areas and deviations. Benefits of Six SigmaProgram: Reduction in product defects: For example software defects at Wipro reduced by 50% Reduction in cycle time: For example rework in software now took 5% instead of 12% Waste elimination and Increased Productivity by 35% Tangible Productivity due to lower cost uncured in developing application Cost of failure avoidance: For example installation failure dropped to 1% from 4.5% Increased customer satisfaction In conclusion, Six Sigma hasbeen an indisputable success at Wipro and the results were rapid andoverwhelming. The organization did not face any resistance to the adoption ofSix Sigma methodology. The Six Sigma program spread across verticals and had animpact on different service area such as market development, project managementand resource utilization.