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In this report,
the author will look at two theoretical concepts, motivation and leadership in
Historical Cadbury. The reason the author selected these topics to speak about
were; they were a crucial part to the success of Cadburys. This report will
include motivation and leadership concepts and will be applied to the context
of Historical Cadbury. I have chosen leadership and motivation as I believe
they were fundamental to the success of Cadburys. The purpose of this report is
to demonstrate an understanding of some of the dynamics and influences at play
within Cadburys. The author will also look to demonstrate how motivation and
leadership impacts in the workplace. Another element of the discussion will be
about the concepts Cadburys used in order to accomplish their organisational
goals. In conclusion, the author will give their personal opinion on whether
they believe motivation and leadership had an impact on Cadburys in the
historical era.

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In 1824, John
Cadbury opened a grocer’s shop at 93 Bull Street, Birmingham. The Cadbury business was born in 1831, when
John Cadbury decided to begin producing on a commercial scale and bought a
four-storey warehouse. Cadburys was built upon Quaker beliefs. In a Quaker
community, a struggling business was a liability, falling into debt was seen as
a form of theft and was punished severely (Cadbury, 2011).

1861, John Cadburys health declined and he retired, handing over the business
to his sons Richard and George and gave them complete control. Richard and
George were 26 and 21 at the time they took over the business. The great hope
was to come up with a breakthrough product. At this time, the business was
struggling and by 1861 Richard recorded a loss of £226 and Georges loss was
about the same. It was up to Richard and George to come up with something to
save the business and fulfil the dream of their family. There was on last hope,
they both inherited £4,000 from their mother and were determined to save the
dream of having a family chocolate factory and they used their inheritance
right down to the last penny. If they failed with the capital they had
invested, the factory would be closed down (Cadbury, 2011). In 1878 George and
Richard had a vision to find a special site for their new factory. The site compromised
meadow with a cottage and a stream. Bournville was chosen as the name of the
factory. In 1897, Cadburys chocolate was launched and hit the shelves. In 1905,
Cadbury dairy milk was launched and it soon led on to become the best seller at
Cadburys and still remains as the biggest chocolate in the world to date.



The author is now going to explain different types of motivational
theories. The first theory the author is going to speak about is Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs. Motivation is the predisposition that arouses and directs
behavior towards certain goals. Motivation comes from sources other than money.
A motivation model was proposed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
theory postulates that people tend to fulfil the lower end of the pyramid
before they move onto focusing on needs at the upper end (Blythe, Jim. 2008) Abraham
Maslow suggested a hierarchical order of human needs, as outlined in figure
2.3. according to Maslow, as humans we tend to satisfy lower-order
psychological needs first, before safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem
needs and the need for self-actualisation. The concept possesses logical
simplicity, making it useful for understanding how humans prioritise needs (Baines,
Fill and Rosengren, n.d. 2016). Safety needs include: security, stability and a
structured environment. Relationship needs include love and friendship. The
final two, esteem and self-actualisation include feelings of independence and
intrinsic motivation. (Adair, 2009) Psychological needs have to be
achieved in order for employees to gradually climb the ladder in the hierarchy
of needs. Employers can use this hierarchy of needs that was proposed by
Abraham Maslow to better understand their employees and have an understanding
as to where they belong. The ability to gradually move up the ladder will put
employees in good stead and help employers move forward with a motivated

The author is
now going to speak about Locke and Latham’s Theory. Goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002) was established within organisational over the
course of 25 years, based on 400 laboratory studies. These studies presented
that specific goals lead to an advanced level of task performance than do easy
goals. So as long as an individual is devoted to the goal, has the necessary
ability to achieve it, and does not have contradictory ambitions, there is a
positive, direct connection between goal difficulty and task performance. Goals
are used to affect in that they set the bar for personal satisfaction with
performance. High, or hard, goals are motivating because they push one to achieve
more in order to be content than do low and easy goals.

There are several components to the link between performance and goals. Goals
direct thought, determination, and action. High goals cause additional effort and/or determination than do simple goals.
Goals could simply encourage one to use their existing ability, and should encourage the
individual to probe for new information. The key to goal setting is feedback. Followers want this to trace their development and commitment to the goal.
(Locke and Latham, 2006).


The author is now going to explain different types of
leadership theories. The first leadership theory the author is going to speak
about is the Great Man Theory. Before the mid-twentieth century, the Great Man
Theory seized authority in the minds of individuals looking to outline the most
challenging quality: leadership. Bernard M. Bass (1990) defends that many individuals
accepted the belief of Jerome Dowd that individuals in all societies possess
different levels of intellect, energy and moral strength, and in any route the majority
may be swayed to go, they are always led by the higher-class few. There was a general
agreement that leaders diverged from their workers, and that foresight was a
factor over the course of history. The debate that leaders are born, not made,
was generally acknowledged, not only by scholars, but by individuals trying to
sway the behavior of others. (Organ, D. 1996)


A lot of information suggests that people at the time
were very absorbed in the Great Man Theory. Regardless of whether leaders are
born or made, it is evident in the Great Man Theory that leaders are different
to other people. Leaders do not have to be great men or women by being knowledgeable
individuals to prosper, but they do need to have the appropriate stuff and this
is not existent in all individuals. Leadership is a challenging, relentless job
with immense pressures and duties. It would be disrespectful to leaders to indicate
that they are normal people who happened to be in the right place at the right
time. In the field of leadership, the individual does matter. (Organ, D. 1996)


The second leadership theory the author is
going to speak about is transformational Leadership. A new example of
leadership has captured a lot of attention. James MacGregor Burns (1978) conceptualised
leadership as either transactional or transformational. (Riggio, Murphy and
Pirozzolo, 2002). The author is going to concisely speak about transformational
itself. Transformational leaders are people that encourage followers to
accomplish great outcomes to benefit their own management ability.
Transformational leaders assist followers to turn into leaders with the aid of
responding to followers needs by way of giving them extra authority and helping
the goals and objectives of the individual, the leaders, the group and the
employer. Extra evidence has gathered to show that transformational leadership
can push followers to surpass their performance, as well as lead to high stages
of fulfilment and duty to the enterprise. More research has accumulated to
demonstrate that transformational leadership is vital in every quarter.
Transformational leaders inspire others to do extra than they initially intended
and often even greater than they thought was possible. They lay down greater
stimulating expectancies and usually gain superior performance.
Transformational leaders also tend to have devoted and satisfied followers. Moreover,
transformational leaders permit followers and be aware of their unique
requirements and personal development, assisting followers to broaden their own
management capacity. (Riggio, Murphy and Pirozzolo, 2002). This concept indicates
the potential to achieve through showing attention to detail to individuals and
placing them in right stead to meet their leadership potential.



review applied to Cadburys


When looking at Cadburys from a historical point of view,
many of the above motivational concepts can be applied in many different ways.
The author is now going to look at the motivation theories and look at how they
apply to Cadburys using different academic resources. Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs can be applied to historical Cadburys. The company are providing a wage
and safe housing. According to (Cadbury, 2010), George wanted to create safe
housing and they did so by building work cottages, the brothers set up
makeshift sleeping arrangements with bedding and pillows for more than twenty
girls, and rooms were also found in the surrounding villages. George Cadbury
was the first chocolate entrepreneur to create a trust of this kind, and his
hopes for what is could accomplish are clear from the deeds. The aim of the
Bournville trust was the improvement of the conditions of the working class and
laboring population. With a special emphasis on improving their quality of life
with gardens and open spaces. This demonstrates that the brothers meet the
first two tiers of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

The third tier of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relating to
the love/belonging, the buying of a special site for their new factory. The site compromised
meadow with a cottage and a trout stream. This could emphasise the idea that
Cadburys wanted to build a motivated workplace to show that it is a place that
the workforce belong to. The establishment of all these additional services at
Bournville could have been to maintain and gain and motivated workplace and
although it is the authors opinion that these tactics were to motivate
employees and the workforce, the two brothers wanted to show the company in a
bright light.


The author is now going to apply
Locke and Latham’s Theory of Goal-setting
theory to historical Cadbury. These studies presented that tough goals lead to
an increased level of task performance than do easy goals. (Locke and Latham,
2006). The
authors states that the primary task for Richard and George is to state the
objectives to the individuals and identify the goals. The success of Cadburys
can be accountable to the employees. According to (Bradley, 2013) having high ability,
highly trained in their field, and intellectually driven to work hard and
smarter was not the end of the Cadbury system. The true prize was the mental
engagement of all employees in the ambitions of the establishment. The key
component required for that was well-structured networks of communication
between executives and employees. The author believes that this is a clear
reflection of the goal theory set by Locke and Latham and states the importance
of goals and strategy in being the true prize of the employees and their active

The author is now going to look at the leadership
theories and look at how they apply to Cadburys using different academic
resources. The first leadership theory the author is going to apply to Cadburys
is the Great Man Theory. The debate that leaders are born, not made, was
generally acknowledged, not only by scholars, but by individuals trying to sway
the behavior of others (Organ, D. 1996). According to (Cadbury, 2011) in 1867,
George and Richard made one last effort, exploiting something that other Quaker
rivals spurned on principle: advertising. Plain Quakers like the Rowntrees in
York believed that a business should be built on the quality and value of its
goods. The ability for the two brothers to adapt in a difficult situation
highlights their leadership skills and being given the business with such
little experience within the field shows that leadership is something you are
born with and it is not made. Additionally, it demonstrates their ability to adapt
whilst going through adversity.


According to (Bradley, 2013) the brothers rapidly expanded their range with a host of
new products, hoping that one would find a way through the competitive minefield.
Richard was down to his last £450 while George had managed to hold on to £1500.
The mindset of the two brothers and their tenacity to make decisions alone
shows their leadership skills in a bright light and again, highlights the Great
Man Theory of leaders being born and not made.

The second leadership theory the author is going to apply
to Cadburys is transformational leadership. Transformational leaders are those
who motivate and inspire followers to both accomplish extraordinary outcomes
and in the process, develop their own leadership ability. Referring to
(Cadbury, 2011), George saw the 6am over breakfast, he encouraged workers to
discuss issues in their lives and tried to help with their education, the factory
was not just a business, it was an opportunity to improve society. This
directly reflects on the transformational leadership notion. Their willingness
to help other people adapt and contribute to their progression, it shows their
transformational leadership style. According to (Cadbury, 2011), George
Cadburys class swelled to three hundred students, and he taught more than 4,000
over a period of fifty years. This kind of touching experience fueled George’s
conviction that the best way to improve a man’s lot was to raise his ideals.
The author believes this to be a clear likeness to the theory. Transformational
leaders permit followers (employees) and pay attention to their specific
necessities and personal development. This style of leadership shows their
eagerness to help the employees working for them. The information stated shows
that the Cadbury brothers had a great sense of transformational leadership
within the workplace.


The relationship between leadership and motivation

When looking at motivation and leadership the author
believes there is a strong relationship between the two. The author will now
look at the two and demonstrate the relationship between the two. Motivation is the predisposition that
arouses and directs behavior towards certain goals. Motivation tends to come
from sources other than pay. If all of the workplace has a generic
understanding of their goals and aims, it has a knock-on effect on the productivity
of Cadburys. The relationship between motivation and leadership is imposed
through transformational leadership is they are leaders who motivate and inspire followers to both accomplish extraordinary
outcomes and in the process, develop their own leadership ability. (Riggio,
Murphy and Pirozzolo, 2002). According to (Dvir et al., 2002) transformational
leaders display fascinating behaviours, provide intellectual stimulation and
treat followers with consideration. This clearly shows the indication between
motivation and leadership and show the importance of the two that they liaise
in order to reach maximum potential. they work hand in hand for both of them to
prosper. These behaviours reshape their followers helping them to achieve their
potential and generate high levels of functioning

Motivation and leadership also link because they enhance
motivation if leaders give followers the drive to achieve something. According
to (Dvir et al., 2002) “transformational leaders evaluate the potential of all
followers in terms of their ability to fulfill current commitments, while also
envisioning expansion of their future responsibilities.” The leaders motivate
employees to move forward and progress after filling their commitments.





To conclude, it is
evident that motivation and leadership played a pivotal part in the success of
Historical Cadburys.  Transformational
leadership demonstrates how providing motivation and inspiration to followers; both accomplish extraordinary
outcomes and in the process, develop their own leadership ability. This will
then give the followers the chance to fulfil their potential. The author has
concluded that the Cadbury’s brothers show both transformational leadership and
elements of the Great Man theory. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be seen in
historical Cadbury as can the theory of Locke and Latham. Levels 1 and 2 in
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs are evident in Cadburys concern of the living and
working environments of the followers. Locke and Latham’s goal setting theory
demonstrates; tough
goals are motivating because they necessitate one to achieve more in order to
be content than do low and/or easy goals (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002). The author believes that the
historical and contemporary Cadbury have a huge distinction and the author has
provided the motivation and leadership aspect of historical Cadbury above.

The author wanted to explore the theories around
motivation and leadership. The relationship between the two is evident due to
the fact that leaders have to put operations in place to motivate employees and
this is significant because if the leaders didn’t put goals in place to
motivate followers, it could result in a demotivated workforce and lower the
performance of Cadbury’s. The importance of motivation and leadership are huge
and have resulted in the success of Cadbury’s.

The author concluded that the link between the two is
immense and it has directly impacted the success of Cadburys. Through many
different theoretical concepts can it be shown how Cadburys did certain things
in their historical era. Without the sheer leadership skills of George and
Richard, plus the motivational drive of the workforce, the success of Cadburys
may not have been as substantial as it turned out to be. 

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