Increase in populationSkyscrapers/electric trolleysDirty citiesNew ImmigrationPush/pull factorsTrouble assimilating into the American societyCommunity “bosses”Settlement HousesHull HouseJane AddamsWomen, children, Black activismNativismAmerican Protective AssociationImmigration restrictive laws passedChinese Exclusion ActChurches takes actionJudaism/ Roman CatholicismTheory of EvolutionModernist vs. ConservativePublic educationBooker T. WashingtonWEB DuboisIncrease in colleges/ universitiesPublic healthThe Library CongressYellow JournalismWritings on reform”Dime novels”Increase in writing/ readingPopular realist novelsNew moralsMore independent womenThe National American Woman Suffrage AssociationIda B. WellsIncrease in alcohol consumptionNational Prohibition Party18th Amend.Develop. In art and musicPhonographAdvance. In entertainmentSportsThe Urban FrontierCity populations of New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago?more than 1 million by 1890Cities were growing/advancing: people were captivated by electricity, telephones, indoor plumbing; electric trolleys; Louis Sullivan?helped to establish skyscrapersHowever, garbage/trash (from boxes, bags, cans, bottles, littering) was a large problem in these citiesThe New Immigration1880?New wave of immigrants emerged from south and east EuropeThey came from poor/weak countries?hard living conditions, democratic governments were not commonSome Americans worried that the new immigrants would not assimilate into American cultureBegan to ask if the United States had become a melting pot or a dumping groundSouthern Europe UprootedPopulation in Europe had dramatically increased in the century after 1800, from plentiful supplies of grain, fish from America and the extensive cultivation of EuropeImmigrants left their domestic countries, b/c Europe was overpopulated and there was no room for them to live a successful lifeSoon, “America Fever” became popular in Europe, because America was shown to be a land of many opportunities and successIn addition to overpopulation, persecution of minorities, lack of food/money, sent numerous immigrants to America and they all sought a chance to become successfulA lot of immigrants had not planned to remain in the US forever, so they returned to their native countries with money to support themselves and their familyMany immigrants stayed, but had trouble assimilating and retaining their cultureReactions to the New ImmigrationThe federal government did not help much to help the immigrants to blend into the American cultureCommunity “bosses” looked after the immigrants?provided jobs, schools, housing, hospitals, parks; In return, the immigrants voted/supported these bossesProgressively, American started to notice the defects of the citiesWalter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden?Protestant clergymen who wanted to employ the ideas/lessons of Christianity into the ghettos and factoriesDevelopment of Settlement Houses?established on poor urban areas, where stable middle-class people would live and look after the local communityThey supplied healthcare and daycare for the poorThese houses became places for social reform/improvements and women’s rights activismHull House (developed by Jane Addams)?the most famous American settlement house; Addams sought to overcome poverty and warProvided English education, guidance to aid immigrants adjust to the busy, city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activitiesAnother major settlement house was the Henry Street Settlement established in NY (1893), by Lillian WaldWomen like Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, and Florence Kelley (social activist for welfare in women, African Americans, children, and consumers) helped to create a better future/work for womenNarrowing the Welcome MatAs masses of immigrants arrived in America, Antiforeignism/Nativism gradually emerged in the 1880sNativists feared that the Americans would quickly be outnumbered/outvoted Accused the immigrants for societal problemsAmerican Protective Association (APA)? established in 1887; promoted antiforeignism/anti-immigration, and encouraged people to vote against any Roman Catholic candidates for for jobs/officeGovernment began to take actions that restricted immigration:Congressed ordered the 1st restrictive law against immigrants in 1882?authorized criminals/prisoners to go back to their native countriesCongress banned the importation of foreign workers under contract; Literacy tests (1917)Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)?blocked Chinese immigrants from entering USChurches Confront the Urban ChallengeAs people began to move the cities/urbanize, Protestant churches were negatively affected by thisProtestant evangelists, like Dwight Lyman Moody, preached about compassion and forgivenessHe assisted in incorporating the traditional religion into the city life; The Moody Bible Institute was established in Chicago (1889) to achieve his work/ideasThe religions of Judaism and Roman Catholicism were becoming more popular, due to the New Immigration; The US had become religiously, very diverse, by 1890 (over 150 religions)The Church of Christ, Scientists (founded 1879), by Mary Baker Eddy?preached that actual healing from sickness comes from the faith in ChristianityDarwin Disrupts the ChurchesCharles Darwin published, On the Origin of the Species, which was about how humans had gradually developed, by evolvingTheory of evolution?questioned the idea of religionModernists: did not believe in religion, or the presence of divinityConservatives: believed in God and religionThe Lust for LearningPublic education and the concept of tax-supported elementary and high schools attained”Normal schools”? teacher-training schools; increased during post-Civil WarPrivate Catholic schools?strengthened it, b/c of the New ImmigrationBusy cities provided better education, than rural schoolhousesBooker T. Washington and Education for Black PeopleThe South was very behind, in regards to public education and negatively affected African AmericansBooker T. Washington?former slave, who promoted black education; aka an “accommodationist”, b/c he did not directly challenge white supremacy; he put more aim on economic, than social equalityWEB Dubois?opposed of Washington’s plans; he thought that Washington convicted the black race to manual labor and constant inferiority; “talented tenth”He assisted to form: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910The Hallowed Halls of IvyAs the post-Civil War period went on, female (often in the Midwest, like Vassar) and black (Howard University and Atlanta University) colleges formedThe Morrill Act of 1862?allowed public lands to the states to promote education; creation on land-grant collegesThe Hatch Act of 1887?expanded the Morrill Act and supplied federal money for the formation of agricultural stations/research,which linked with the land-grant collegesWealthy businessmen and millionaires often donated to the educational systemJohns Hopkins University (1876)?became the 1st top rated graduate schoolThe March of the MindAs science/technology advanced, public health developedWilliam James?his writings significantly influence the subject of psychologyMedicine and med-schools advanced: people were more aware of germs and life expectancyThe Appeal of the PressThe Library of Congress?established in 1897; increase in reading more and illiteracy decreased in USInvention of Linotype (1885)? increased the printing/publishing of newspapersYellow Journalism (Joseph Pulitzer)?a new style/technique of journalism; dramaticized the newsSan Francisco Examiner(1887)?chain of newspapers, created by William Randolph HearstThe Associated Press (founded in 1840s) gained more strength, money, and popularityApostles of ReformThe New York Nation (1865)?one of the most effective magazines, that promoted civil-service reform, truthfulness in the government, and a fair tariffLooking Backward (socialistic novel), by Edward Bellamy, showed a time in the future, when large businesses are associated to aid the public interestsProgress and Poverty (book), by Henry George in 1879, discussed the partnership of progress with poverty; he introduced the 100% tax on profits, b/c of the increased cost of landPostwar WritingPeople were more interested in reading after the Civil War; “Dime novels” were very popularHarlan F. Halsey wrote around 650 dime novelsA lot of the books that were popular were in the genre of realism; people were interested in reading about real occurrences or eventsBen Hur: A Tale of Christ, by Gen. Lewis Wallace discussed Darwinism and faith in ChristLiterary LandmarksAmerican writing went through a change?early 1800’s was Romanticism, but by the late 1800’s, realism was very popular by the peopleThe switch to realism was sparked by the industrial revolution and urbanization; people were also interested in book that were the genres of naturalism and regionalismKate Chopin?wrote honestly about adultery, suicide, and the aspiration of womenMark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was popular/influential; it exposed the cruel racial discrimination against African Americans in the USFrank Norris? his novel, The Octopus (1901), exposed political and railroad corruption in USMany books that were published and popular were about societal problems, true events, related to American history, or popular ideasThe New MoralityAs the US modernized, new ideas of morality challenged the current morals”New morality” took place in higher divorce rates, increased consumption of birth control, more open talk about sex, more independent women, which jobsVictoria Woodhull?wrote about her ideology in free loveComstuck Law?censored immoral content from the public; this law was administered by the help of Anthony ComstuckFamilies and Women in the CityDuring the late 1800s, divorce rates grew and family sizes decreasedWomen began to become more independent in the urban citiesCharlotte Perkins Gilman (feminist)?encouraged women to be more independent and be more involved in the economy and the community, by getting jobs/making moneyThe National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890) was createdUnfortunately, a lot of these returned suffrage movements and women organizations excluded African American womenIda B. Wells?aided to initiate the African American women’s club movement, which eventually led to the formation of the National Association of Colored Women (1896)Prohibition of Alcohol and Social ProgressAlcohol/Drinking increased during the late 1800’s?people would get drunk, and especially men would come home drunk and often physically abuse their wifeAlcohol consumption increased violence in homes, decreased family’s money, kept men drunkIn response, the National Prohibition Party was established in 1869 and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union was formed in 1874The Anti-Saloon League?sought for the ban of alcohol in the states1919?the 18th Amendment was passed, which banned the manufacturing of alcohol in the USArtistic TriumphsAmerica’s own style of art began to form during this time of advancementMusic and portrait painting became very popularWinslow Homer?painted in the most “American” wayMusic, like black folk tunes and jazz/blues began during this timePhonograph?made it possible to reproduce music, mechanically and was invented by Thomas EdisonThe Business of AmusementEntertainment in America advanced and became more popular, as people had more leisure/free time to attend these events, due to hourly jobs in the cityThe circus developed in the 1880s; horse racing became very popular and became the second national pastimeThe development of sports took place during this periodBaseball grew to become the national pastime and eventually, a professional baseball league was formed in the 1870s A new sport, basketball was invented by James Naismith in 1891Summary: During the late 1800s, America as a country had started its second Industrial Revolution and began to urbanize. Many people moved from the rural parts of America, to the city and urban parts of America. As technological advancements increased, this opened up many jobs for women and especially immigrants, which sparked the New Immigration. These immigrants came from countries with little history of democracy, poor living conditions. As large masses of immigrants came to the US, the Americans feared that they would outnumber and outvote them, so antiforeignism and nativism began to emerge to prevent more immigration. However, some Americans were more welcoming and established settlement houses to help immigrants to settle in an urban environment. During this time, many improvements and advancements were seen in technology, science, morals, art, music, entertainment, and sports. People began to read and write more. Public education was strongly promoted and many schools were established during this period. Many laws were passed by Congress, regarding the social aspect of the people in the US.