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In the mid-1989 a civil war began in Darfur. And between  1987 -2033  the conflicts turned into a Sudan affair (Ch. 8), 231-270 .Where the basics fuel  of  this war are racism the Arabs versus African al hizam al Zunji wanted to remove all Arabs from this soil  and indiscriminate violence against civilians (page 234) .Chapter 8 ”Civil War ,Rebellion,and Repression”analyzed conflicts with regards to historical events.For instance,sudanese history,the legacy of colonialism,cold war geopolitics and the contemporary war on terror. As stated that some violence are flared when colonial period ended(p233). The Janjaweed and Fursan have destroyed villages, killed men and women and appropriating fur property at will (p233) .The use of violence has been massive and indiscriminate, with civilians largely targeted.According to Mamdani, the current conflict  has its roots in the legacy of British imperialism, which introduced the dichotomy of ”native” Africans versus ”settler” Arabs to the region and created homelands for some tribes while leaving others landless; in the prolonged drought and desertification of the Sahel, which has caused landless tribes’ encroachment on landed tribes’ territories in an already resource poor region; and in the continued legacy of the cold war, where a proxy war in Chad between Libya and Western powers (namely, France and the United States) helped militarize the nomadic Arab tribes that populate northern Chad and Darfur, and whose members now constitute much of the Janjaweed. In my opinion,the civil war in Darfur was a form of structural violence as Bandy X Lee wrote in her article Causes and cures VII: Structural violence, “It refers to the avoidable limitations society places on groups of people that constrain them from achieving the quality of life that would have otherwise been possible. For example , the notion of tribal property ,between those whose has homeland right and the ones with diminishes or  no homeland rights.(P 242-243) . References: Mamdani, Mahmood. 2009. Saviors and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror. New York: Pantheon. “Civil War, Rebellion, and Repression (Ch. 8), 231-270Saviors and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror ? Mahmood Mamdani. (2010). Ethics & International Affairs, 24(1), (2017). Structural violence. Online Available at:

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