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In graph one on the chlorophyll b Rf-values,
the standard deviation overlap with the Rf-values that causes the reference
Rf-values agree with ours values. But the standard deviation is large and the
spread is 0,48, that causes the average undependable.


In the other pigments Rf-values they do not
agree with the reference values because standard deviation do not overlap like
the chlorophyll b. The range of the Rf-value is smaller because the standard
deviation do not become bigger.

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The Rf values announce how soluble the
particular pigment is in the solvent by how high the pigment act on the paper.
The Rf- value is the distance the pigments travel (cm) divided by the distance
the solvent travels (cm). Short Rf values have a tendency to indicate larger,
less soluble pigments although the highly soluble pigments have an Rf value
close to one. Two pigments with the same Rf value are expected to be indistinguishable
molecules. Solubility depends on the volume and the affinity of the molecule.



Plants have these photo-pigments because
they cooperate with light to absorb only certain wavelengths, pigments are
helpful to plants which are capable of synthesizing its own food from simple
organic substances. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, pigments are the means
by which the energy of sunlight is captured for photosynthesis.


Photosynthetic pigment is converting light
into biochemical energy. Examples for photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll,
carotenoids and phycobilins. These pigments come in a high-energy state upon
absorbing a photon, which they can discharge in the form of chemical energy. Chlorophyll
a absorbs light primarily in the red and blue parts of the spectrum.
Chlorophyll b, xanthophyll and carotene absorb light from other parts of the spectrum
and pass the energy in contact with chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a is the central
pigment. Chlorophyll b, xanthophyll and carotene are appliance pigments.


The plant pigments comprise various types
of molecules such as porphyrins, carotenoids, anthocyanins and betaines. All
biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while
reflecting others. The plant to propel chemical reactions, while the reflected
light determines what colour the pigment identify to have can use the energy in
the light absorbed. There are different pigments observed in the Woodbine
solution due to different plants have different pigments. Woodbine have the pigments
anthocyanin, which principal object is to attract pollinators, not absorb
light. Therefore, the Woodbine solution does not contain the equivalent
pigments as the Spinach solution.


A particularly noticeable pigment
phenomenon is the colour change of the leaves of the deciduous tree in autumn,
when the leaves change from being green to show different shades in red,
orange, yellow and brown. This is because when the amount of chlorophyll
decreases in the leaves, the colour of the other pigments appears, plus the
increase for the anthocyanin production.


The differences in my graph and Ms. D´s is these:


Ms.D’s graph did not have the % absorption
for xanthophyll which my graph had.


 Ms. D’s y-axis goes from -10% to 100%
meanwhile mine goes from -0,02% to 0.10%.


 Chlorophyll b in my graph when the wavelength
is 460 nm the absorption percentage is at its highest, which is 7%. However, in
Ms. D’s graph when the wavelength is about the same (it does not state the
wavelengths between 450 and 500 so I need to give an estimated guess.) the
absorption rate is also at its highest for chlorophyll b but the rate is then
greater than 7%, around 8%. Otherwise, the graphs looks almost the same for the
chlorophyll b.


The same thing goes for the
chlorophyll a. The highest absorption rate on my graph is 7.7& at 440 nm
meanwhile its 7% at ca the same nm in Ms.D’s graph. Overall, the graph looks
almost the same. 


most important pigment types of plants are:

The substance chlorophyll is usually
divided into different groups, called a, b, c and d. Plants contain chlorophyll
from groups a and b, where chlorophyll b collects the radiation energy in the
sunlight and passes it on to chlorophyll a, which in turn uses the radiation
energy in photosynthesis.


When the autumn comes, the leaves of the
tree turn yellow and red, and it is because the dominant chlorophyll usually
comes by the tree and disappears into the trees and branches of the tree,
waiting for the next spring to appear. The yellow and red dyes could also found
in the leaves during the summer, but as said, the green colour of the
chlorophyll is dominant, and the yellow and red colours do not appear as long
as the chlorophyll is present in the leaves. However, when the chlorophyll has
left the leaves of the tree, only the yellow and red dyes remain, which gives
the leaves its autumn colours.


In winter, when there is less light,
chlorophyll is not produced. There is already a yellow pigment, known as
carotenoids, in the cells of the leaves but it is not visible until chlorophyll
production decreases. It is by the same to the same pigment as in carrots. When
the green colour of the leaves disappears, the yellow carotene remains and the
leaves are yellow. Cold nights accelerate the colour change of the leaves.


The chlorophyll disappears in the fall
because they contain the biologically valuable elements: nitrogen and
magnesium. The plant decomposes chlorophyll into its constituents and saves the
nitrogen and magnesium over the winter, before folding the leaves. The
carotenoids contain only carbon, hydrogen and sometimes oxygen, which are
biologically inexpensive elements. Therefore, the carotenoids are also
maintained during the fall, which means that the leaves can continue with
photosynthesis even if less efficiently. Chlorophylls and carotenoids are
fat-soluble substances that are insert into the fat internal membranes of the
chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are those parts of the plants’ leaves that handle
photosynthesis. Anthocyanins are water-soluble substances found in the leaf

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