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In this lab, yeast will be grown under two different types of conditions. One condition would be with oxygen and the other would be without the oxygen. In both these conditions, I would still be measuring how much carbon dioxide is being produced. When there is oxygen around, then yeast will digest the sugar in the same way we do and will produce about six moles of carbon dioxide from one mole of sugar. However, without the oxygen, they could still digest sugar, except instead of making six moles of carbon dioxide, they make around two. They will also produce alcohol, which is how people make beer and other alcoholic beverages. During the time when the alcohol is being produced, that is when fermentation begins to take place. The major goal of fermentation is to produce alcohol. During this time, propagation begins to increase the yeast biomass. Overall, the process of anaerobic yeast respiration, the process is able to convert sugars into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and even energy. On the other hand, aerobic respiration is able to convert the sugars and the oxygen in the substances into water. When there is less oxygen that is when there is more alcohol being produced. When you have more oxygen that would man that there is more energy being produced.
?My findings would end up showing if the yeast without oxygen produced more or less carbon than the yeast with oxygen. I would be looking for if the presence of oxygen leads to higher amounts of carbon dioxide production.
?Yeast is a type of fungi, which is single- celled. They are very similar to our bodies. For example, the cells from our bodies are able to derive energy from sugar molecules; this is the same with yeast. Yeast is able to break down larger types of carbohydrate molecules into simple sugar molecules, which you can later expand and work with more. When there is oxygen available to us, the yeast is able to extract more energy from the sugar, however less energy is taken from each of the sugar molecules. Along with obtaining less energy with any chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms involving effervescence and the giving off of heat, the finishing product of the sugar metabolism also differs. Sugar molecules could be broke down into carbon dioxide and water when there is oxygen present. However, when there is no oxygen, the chemical breakdown of the substance of bacteria, yeast, or other microorganisms giving off heat, produces alcohol, carbon dioxide and water.
Hypothesis: There will be more of a yeast growth in the areas with oxygen, which would be the aerobic test.
Null Hypothesis: Since yeast already includes other carbohydrates, there will not be a drastic change in the nonaerobic tests.
Alternative Hypothesis: The yeast will grow much more rapidly in the aerobic tests than the tests with no oxygen.
IV: The level of oxygen.
DV: The levels of carbon dioxide collected. (varies depending on whether the yeast has oxygen or not.
Constant: The amount of total oxygen, light, and air pressure that is being affected in the bottle.
Literature Review:
?Bacteria is grown when there is CO2 present, which is one of the most common reason there are clinical infections. When it comes to yeast, there is an anaerobic respiration, which is called fermentation. This process produces carbon dioxide to create ethanol or lactate. These would be created as the primary waste products, as the aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide and water. The water and the carbon dioxide would be known as the primary waste products.
?The primary goal for the fermentation would be to produce the alcohol as the breeding of a bacterium by a natural process. Yeast contains a type of substance known as trehalose, and approximately has at least three polysaccharides, along with some glycogen, mannan and insoluble glucan. The polysaccharides are most of the time isolated by certain types of methods, which were described originally by Salkowski. Some of these workers were known as being critical about the drastic chemical treatments which had Salkowski as well.
?There have been similar methods being used to create new chemical identities of glycogen being extracted from the yeast in different ways. There have been similar methods that were used to sum up the amount of carbohydrates and recover in the remaining separate fractions, which ended up being less than the total carbohydrates that were collected to apply the anthrone techniques to the whole yeasts. There are internal checks against larger incidents in which there are some accidental errors that may occur. There were some other incidents in studies, where in some of the cells, which required longer and more careful solutions than some of the other ones needed or had shown. Yeast carries relatively a small amounts of deoxyribonucleic acid, as much of the material that acts as a pentose can be extracted from the yeast.
This can only be done once the yeast has been removed of all the adenosine and the phosphates or any of the other coenzymes that contain any cold trichloroacetic acid, which may be shown to be a ribonucleic acid, with no mistake shown. In the ribonucleic acid, there is the main portion of the pentose, which contains a certain amount of yeast, which reacts with anthrone to give a new kind of color. This color then begins to fade away rapidly under certain conditions in which there is a bigger kind of estimation. This specific type of color is produced by these mixtures which include hexoses and pentoses within them, which was also found. This was considered to be extremely addictive, and there was no specific type of interruption during this time in which there had been an estimation to describe the other types of findings which were also now newly discovered. There were some specific types of RNA which were found in the what is known as the alkali soluble and together when some glycogen is inputted, in with the mannan, which later had an effect with the carbohydrates by the anthrone. There were also some tubes that were covered with some glass stoppers and that were heated for 45 minutes during this separate experiment when trying to figure out these findings. The result in these ended up showing how if you cool it after this short brief moment, then the cells will centrifuge and up being washed will at least 4 ml of the water. Much of this solution was diluted into a separate container for a volume determination in order to determine the amount of mannan and alkali soluble to the glycogen.
I will start off by collecting CO2 from the yeast by displacing water trapped in an inverted graduated cylinder. I will need to fill my plastic bucket about one-third full with water and then fill the graduated cylinder with water. It’s important to allow any bubbles to escape by tilting the cylinder up slightly, while keeping it under water. Keeping the opening of the cylinder under water, I will turn it upside down and attach it to the side of the tub with packing tape. The graduated cylinder should then be upside down, full of water and with its opening under the surface of the water in the tub. It is ready to trap CO2 produced by your yeast. Next, I need a way to bring the CO2 from the yeast to your gas collection apparatus. Make a hole in the bottle cap, just big enough to insert the plastic tubing. Use a drill or a nail and a hammer. Insert a piece of plastic tubing through the hole in the cap so that it sticks out about 2 centimeters. This will be the tube for collecting CO2. It should remain above the surface of the yeast solution. Seal the tube to the cap with epoxy or silicone sealant so that it is air-tight. Allow the epoxy or silicone to cure fully before conducting the experiment. When your gas collection apparatus is ready, I will start the actual experiment. I will label one bottle “+air” and the other bottle “?air”. I will be making one solution at a time, and then testing the yeast with a solution with the oxygen. Boil 3 cups of water and let the water cool to between 43–46°C (about 110–115°F).Dissolve 2 tablespoons (Tbsp.) of sugar in 2 cups of warm water. Stir slowly and gently. When the sugar is fully dissolved, aerate the solution with the aquarium aerator pump and air stone. After 5 minutes, stop aerating the solution.
Next add and mix in 2 teaspoons (tsp.) of yeast (this is about the same amount as 1 packet of yeast).
Pour the entire solution into the “+air” bottle. Leave space at the top of the bottle, so that your CO2 collection tube remains above the yeast solution.
Cap the bottle tightly with the “tube cap,” and place the open end of the collection tube inside your gas collecting cylinder. Within 5–10 minutes, the yeast solution may start foaming, and you may see bubbles collecting in the graduated cylinder. To promote oxygen circulation in the yeast solution, periodically gently “swirl” the bottle to stir the contents. Decide how long to collect CO2. I will need to repeat these steps multiple times   for more data.

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