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In order to appreciate
the present position in modern biology regarding the theory of evolution by
natural selection, one must look at the divide that was initially between
Darwinian selection and Mendelian genetics, despite the requirement for both in
order to understand natural selection. Mendelian genetics deals with the concepts
of hybridisation and heredity, but both were neglected in Darwin’s theory due to
the nature of his explanation of evolution being based off of the physical
evidence he identified while of his voyage to the Galapagos archipelago and his
research of the domestic species of England, as described in the Origin of Species.

Gregor Mendel, was a
scientist from the Czech Republic whose work sought to explain inheritance and incorporate
mathematics into evolution in order to form the basis of population genetics
within the modern evolutionary theory (Grafen 2006), as Mendel introduced the term
and concept of “mutation” and applied it to a hereditary particle or gene. Mutation
being defined as “the inception of a heritable variation caused by a fortuitous
change in the structure of a gene” (de Beer, 1963, p. 180).

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Darwinian and Mendelian
supporters both have to accept two concepts about the opposing theories

Darwinian selection:

That the discontinuous effects of
mutations first observed were obvious detectable extremes with the majority
producing only slight effects

Mutations that were first observed had
harmful effects because of the fragility of well-adjusted organisms that are
more likely to be damaged by discontinuous changes than gradual steps

Mendelian genetics

Individual genes may be associated with
particular characteristics and the control of these affected by genes
constitutes as an organised reshuffled genecomplex, as a result previous
mutations can contain dissimilar genes leading to the formation of germ cells
and the recombination at random at the time of fertilisation, equalling a large
number of possible variations of genes that can occur.

In reshuffled gene complexes the effects
of a particular gene it is accentuated and in others it is reduced, therefore,
the effects of mutations aren’t clear but may produce variations that are
similar because the effect of given mutation can alter by the changes in the
reshuffled gene complex (de Beer 1936) 

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