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      In today’s world we experience a shortage of several vital necessities. One of the biggest issues today is the lack of organ transplants due to lack of organ donors. On average, 20 people die each day while awaiting an organ transplant. As the death rates increase in the US, society becomes more desperate on the the crucial solution to the organ shortage we live through today. The US needs a rapid and huge increase of organ donors and the time is running up. Recently, the demand for organ transplantation has rapidly increased due to the increased incidence of vital organ failure, the rising success and greater improvements in posttransplant outcome.   Therefore, in 2009, organ transplants became a demand everywhere so abruptly that countless nationalities began selling their organs in return for money (HRSA 1). Eighty-one percent of commercial living donors (CLDs) in Egypt spent their “Kidney money” within five months after their donation (Budiani-Saberi 20). “Public opinion quickly coalesced around the idea of banning such commodification. Lawmakers moved to pass the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) in order to prohibit a market in body parts” (Budiani-Saberi 21). A system based on financial incentives for donation is naturally flawed. Markets not only exploit donors, but also fall short of demands for organs that may eventually harm recipients. Material incentives target the poor by providing bribes for their “donation.” A material payment for an organ appeals to individuals with unsatisfactory employment, health care, housing and education. “They would also induce less-than-healthy donors to come forward and thus do not secure the best health outcomes for either recipients or donors.” Such motivations are more likely to deceive altruistic living and deceased donation. Individuals will be less likely to request a donation from a family member if there are other preferences such as generous donations from families of the deceased (Budiani-Saberi 24-25). Such organs are being trafficked illegally over the globe.Organ trafficking in particular is the recruitment, transport, harboring, or receipt of a living or deceased personnel. Golden states that several countries, including Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, have compensated live donors and families of the deceased as a part of the consent process for procuring organs (Budiani-Saberi 26).” Apart from these nations where it is a regulatory scheme for commercial living donation, unregulated practices thrive in many parts of the world as a staple source of supplying organs for transplant. Although such practices are technically illegal in some countries, the institution that issues medical licenses (The Doctors’ Syndicate), transplant centers, and laboratories openly tolerate commercial transplants. Golden also says that an unlicensed transplant in certain countries reflects similar abuses of organ trafficking that operate in other global hot spots, including Pakistan and the Philippines (Budiani-Saberi 26-27). “With numerous organ sales, negative health consequences for living donors have reported a general deterioration in one’s their health status,” remarks Golden (Budiani-Saberi 27). Wright, a writer in Akron, Ohio, said she was unaware of the consequences when she donated a kidney to her sister in 2008. She then suffered depression and anxiety two years after the operation due to complications during her operation (Carlson 1). Other health consequences include pain, nausea, and easily fatigued while standing even for short periods of time (Budiani-Saberi 20). Meanwhile, while some are trafficking organs to make money, others are forcing people from underdeveloped countries to donate their organs. Smith recalls that traffickers use deception and violence to provide organs from impoverished people to desperately ill patients in more-affluent nations. These traffickers pay well over $10,000 to a seller for a kidney but easily double the amount when selling the organ to a patient (Budiani-Saberi 31-32). “Of the patients who receive organs from a living donor, 90 percent survive at least five years; for those receiving an organ from a dead donor, the figure is 82 percent, according to the Washington-based Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network,” says Krasnolutska (Budiani-Saberi 36). Krasnolutska also states that the Israeli-eastern European organ-trafficking rings finally reached U.S. territories after several years of trying. In July 2009, the Justice Department discovered Levy Rosenbaum, an Israeli, trying to illegally traffic human organs in the U.S. Later on the Justice Department charged him with conspiracy after offering a kidney in New York for $160,000 (Budiani-Saberi 37). Laws designed to prevent trafficking are currently unsuccessful. Such countries include Israel, Brazil, Kosovo and Ukraine who have not yet successfully eliminated all of the organ-trading gangs, but are using strong economic forces to do so. “As long as there’s a worldwide shortage of legal donors for life-saving transplants, the exploitation of the poor will only grow. Unless governments around the world enforce existing laws on prohibiting procedures, the traffickers will continue to cultivate a growing legion of impoverished organ sellers who end up with an immense wad of cash,” said David Glovin (Budiani-Saberi 39-40). As a result, suspicions of trafficking between Hong Kong and China in 1989 caused the Tiananmen Square massacre to arise. Causing an upsurge in China’s death penalty, and the use of executed prisoners’ organs without consent discovered by The Amnesty International. Dr. Ronald D. Guttman, a McGill University professor, showed that after 1989, about ninety percent of China’s transplants came from executed prisoners. Alongside Guttman was Elizabeth Forsythe recalling that the accusations confronted with eyewitnesses attesting to executions that first surfaced many allegations in the 1990’s. This caused the London Guardian and several other organizations to become suspicious of these Chinese actions (Budiani-Saberi 76). The Chinese of course denied all of the allegations. Until 1994 when Forsythe recovered that the Ministry of Health was taking organs from prisoners but never without the prisoners’ consent (Budiani-Saberi 77). Since 1994, China began to give eyewitnesses the impression that they have regulated their organ transplantations. “In 2007, for instance, the government set medical standards for transplantation and established fines and other punishments for violators.” In 2008 Forsythe received news that the Ministry of Health penalized three hospitals for selling human organs illegally (Budiani-Saberi 79).With the continuance of illegally trafficking organs, the stakes remain high. Reducing the number of personnel is not only a legal problem; the solution must approach from a fundamental reevaluation of our long-held beliefs on the sanctity of the human body, economics, and privacy. Carney says that one needs to stop viewing demands for bodies as a fixed issue that can only be answered by increasing the overall supply (Budiani-Saberi 45). The condition for any human body or tissue exchange depends on absolute clearness of the supply chain. “Even in the best hospitals in the United States, it is almost impossible to know the identity of a brain-dead donor who gave up their organs. This depersonalization of one’s tissue is one of the broadest failings of modern medicine,” says Carney with the intent to personalize human identities (Budiani-Saberi 47). As this goal is being put into effect, says Smith, organ trafficking is still on the rise with an estimated five thousand people continuing to sell organs on the black market each year (Budiani-Saberi 32). “According to the World Health Organization, about ten percent of the organ transplants are obtained on the black market,” concluded Carney (Budiani-Saberi 45). Investigations and eyewitness, such as Forsythe, reported that the Chinese government harvested organs from executed prisoners without prior consent that eventually end up in black markets (Budiani-Saberi 76-77). After suspicions of the Chinese harvesting executed prisoners’ organs in 1990, the Ministry of Public Security linked them to the execution of Falun Gong adherents. Forsythe then said that the next year, the government formally banned Falun Gong and cracked down its practitioners after assumptions of a secret underground detention center where Chinese doctors were harvesting organs from Falun Gong prisoners (Budiani-Saberi 78).Due to the execution of these prisoners and forces transplantation, the Chinese received money from these illegally transplanted organs. Donors who often give these organs have little or no access to hospital care following the extraction of an organ, which is necessary to prevent complication after surgery.     Documentation on poor recipients showed they were unable to afford costly immunosuppressant therapy preventing organ rejection. Such recipients are forced to choose between maintaining their good health or plummeting to debt. Hudson says even though the donation of an organ itself might not constitute a disability, being unable to work after the organ extraction due to the lack of medical care causes disability to one’s lifestyle (Budiani-Saberi 61). Donors do not realize when they offer up a body part in return for money, their debt does not resolve. Lawrence Cohen, a professor in Medical Anthropology, states “Everyone was back in debt despite having sold a kidney, possibly related to issues linked to their social status” (Budiani-Saberi 62). Cohen discusses how “kidney zones” illustrate social hierarchy and corporate competition interacts to produce areas where the organ trade flourishes. “This set the stage for the competition between public and private healthcare entities, and in combination with surgeons willing to take risks for money and a pool of indebted citizens,” concluded Hudson (Budiani-Saberi 59).” Saving lives is perhaps the greatest benefit to donating organs. Donating healthy organs can help extend the life of someone otherwise would have passed away. In addition to saving lives, receiving a new organ can restore functions within one’s body that may have been disabled due to the faulty organ. Although donations come with great sorrow for the family of the deceased the families are able to cope with the loss by knowing that their loved one is helping another live. An organ that is found fast, quick, and a match to one’s needs can be miniscule but one it’s found it an help reduce the cost in possible long-term medical bills. For example, if an organ such as a kidney was found for one’s operation it would reduce the need of Kidney dialysis the patient would have need the rest of their life (Joseph 1).Even though organ donation can be beneficial, there are still concerns. For example, if you sign up to be an organ donor a check mark is placed on the back of your driver license. Therefore, if one were to get into an accident and they discover that that personnel is a life-saving donor, they will worry more about transferring their organs than saving that life (HRF 1). Another problem is the waiting list for organ recipients. “Right now there are more than 121,000 people on the list waiting for a lifesaving organ and an average of eighteen people die each day waiting transplants due to a shortage of donations (UCSD 1).” With getting a transplant one receives medical preparations for their operation. Medical expenses are usually paid by one’s insurance for the beginning processes of the transplantation. “If complication were to happen after surgery, insurance is not liable for it. Putting one further into debt and prolonging one’s everyday activities,” stated Heisler (Budiani-Saberi 37).If one were to reevaluate organ donation due to personal religion, inability to benefit the poor, numerous hospital visits, and the potential endangerment to one’s own well being, one might rethink their opinion towards organ donation. Even if one were to be on the donor list, take a minute to imagine receiving a call that an organ is available. Would one continue to the hospital with intentions of receiving an organ with the knowledge of the potentially harmful risks or continue life to the best way possible.Works Cited”About Organ Donation and Allocation.” UC San Diego Health System. University of California. 2014. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. .Budiani-Saberi, Debra. Is selling Body Parts Ethical?. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Print.Carlson, Megan. “Risks of living organ donation not ‘sinking in,’ researcher says.” Medill Reports Chicago. Northwestern University. 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. .Joseph, Chris. “What are the Benefits of Organ Donation?” eHow. York College of Pennsylvania. 2014. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. .”Organ Transplantation: Ethical Dilemmas and Policy Choices.” Staff Background Paper. Georgetown University. Jan. 2003. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. .”Potential risks of Transplant Surgery.” UC Davis Transplant Center. UCDavis Health system. 2014. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. learnabout/learn_risks.html>.”Pros and Cons of Organ Donation.” HRF. Health Research Funding. 28 Dec. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. .Scott, Ronald. “Living Organ Donations Raise Ethical Concerns.” UNOS. University of Houston. 30 Apr. 2002. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. .”The Need Is Real: Data.” Donation &Transplant. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 2009. Web. 31. Jan. 2014.< http://organdonor.gov/about/data.html>.

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