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In the study area, charcoal is produced more dominantly using traditional earth mound kiln and traditional earth pit kilns. Consequently, charcoal is produced in an oxygen poor environment that leads to the emission of greenhouse gases such as Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Methane (CH4) and Non Methane Hydrocarbon (NMHC). In the case of calculation of the amount of greenhouse gases emitted from charcoal and firewood production and consumption in the study area, certain baseline emission factors of the pollutant gases were referred from previous studies.  According to Domac and Trossero, (2008) the emission from traditional charcoal production  methods in g per Kg charcoal produced are given as 450 to550 for CO2, 700 for CH4 , 450 to 650 for CO and  10-700 for NMHC. And also, Chidumayo et al., (2013) used 1788±337 for CO2 and 32±5 for CH4.Emission during the combustion of charcoal and firewood were adopted from Bhattacharya, S.C., et al (2002).  They stated an emission factor for charcoal combustion as 2155 to 2567 g per Kg for CO2, 35 to 198 g per Kg for CO, 6.7 to 7.8 g per Kg for CH4 and 6 to 10 g per Kg for NMHC. Whereas the emission factors stated for firewood combustion is as 1560 to 1620 g per Kg for CO2, 19 to 136 g per Kg for CO, 6 to 10 g per Kg for CH4 and 0.05 to 0.2 g per Kg for NMHC.The average emission factors from combustion and production of charcoal and firewood was used as referenceTable 11: the emission factors of the trace gases as stated in several studiesTypes of fuel                                            Emission factors MCF CO2 CO N2O CH4 NMHC ReferencesFuel wood burning 0.85 450 43 0.52 1.5 0.125 Ludwig, et al.,2003; Bhattacharya, S.C., et al (2002Charcoal Burning 1 170 25 0.29 0.5 Brocard and Lacaux, 1998 Akagi, et al., (2011)Charcoal Production 500 550 0.22 700 355 Chidumayo et al., (2013) Akagi, et al., (2011)The amount of trace gases emitted during the production and combustion of firewood and charcoal was estimated by using the calculation adapted from Ludwig et al, (2003).                   Where; MCF is moisture correction factor (Brocard and Lacaux, 1998)             BC is the wood fuel combustion rate (Kg of wood per person per month)             EF is emission factor (g C per Kg of a fuel burned)The amount of estimated charcoal and firewood in Kilogram were obtained during the household survey. Accordingly, the estimation for charcoal and firewood is 3132.4776 tons /year and 2501.1948 tons /year respectively.  Based on previously estimated emission factors, the amount of pollutant emitted during charcoal and firewood production and consumption is illustrated in Table 12. Domac and Trossero (2008); Chidumayo et al., (2013); Bhattacharya, et al., (2002); Ludwig, et al.,2003;  Brocard and Lacaux, 1998 presented the emission for the pollutants in range; however this study the average value of maximum and minimum figures were used.      Trace gases                                 Charcoal Emission during Firewood         Combustion in( T g year -1)* Emission during  Production in           (T g year -1)*  Emission during Combustion in                   (T g year -1)* Carbon dioxide (CO2)               1.566           0.532 0.957Carbon monoxide (CO)               1.723           0.078 0.091 Nitrous Oxide  (N2O)               0.00069           0.0009 0.0011Methane (CH4)               2.19           0.00157 0.0032Total Non-Methane Hydrocarbon (TNMHC)a               1.112 0.000266Table 12: the estimate of the amount of pollutants emitted during charcoal and firewood production and combustion a Total Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are defined as organic compounds excluding methane (CH4) that contain only C and H; examples include alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, and terpenes.                                                                                                                                                                               (T g year -1)* Tera gram of trace gases per yearIn this study, we have drawn a conclusion of the emission of trace gases produced during charcoal making is higher than that of charcoal burning. Other studies are also agree with this result; for example Kammen and Lew (2005) have presented that the emission during charcoal production have a greater global warming contribution as compared to emission from charcoal combustion.   Domestic biomass burning for energy generation constitutes a continuous inputs of trace compounds into the atmosphere, unlike vegetation fires that are a seasonal phenomenon (Ludwig et al., 2003).  In this study, the amount of trace gases generated during firewood burning exceeds the one generated during charcoal burning (see figure 2). The study conducted in Zambia by   Bertschi et al. (2003) is accord with the result of the current study; he indicated that more fuel wood is used than charcoal with wood combustion producing 9.8 Tg C yr-1 as CO2 and charcoal producing 3.3 Tg C yr-1. NOx was emitted in the lowest quantities from both wood and charcoal.                              Figure 2: Emission of GHGs during household fuel combustion According to Akagi, et al., (2011) biomass burning is the second largest source of trace gases and the largest source of primary fine carbonaceous particles in the global troposphere. The emission of trace gases from biomass combustion is on the important factor for global climate change in developing countries. Firewood and charcoal, animal dung and agricultural residues  account more than 30% of the global  sources of atmospheric NOx and NMHC, about 40% of CO emissions and about 15% of CH4 emission (Lindesay, 2000).  According to Yevich and Logan, (2003), trace gases such as CO2, CO CH4 and N2O produced from biomass burning are equivalent to 

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