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of microflora in zooanimals


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living microorganisms that are so small that they can be seen only with a microscope and that maintain a more or less constant presence in a particular area e.g. the pharynx  or the rumen, includes bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi.(

Microflora is the mixture of microorganisms that are
regularly founf at any anatomical site of human body.(

In human microflora
present in:

Skin, elementry tract, urogenetal tract,
ears, mouth (i.e oral cavity), nose (I.e respiratory tract) and eyes. (

and their benefit

The microflora is a bacteria found in or on ones’ bodies on a
temporary basis without causing disease. In that respect are larger numbers of
bacteria than cells present in ones’ body. The human body contains around 1013
cells, whereas the human physical structure is home to around 1014 bacteria.
One-fourth of fecal weight consists of bacteria.

They mainly inhabit the Large Intestine. They are likewise set
up in the respiratory tract, particularly the nose, the Digestive tract, i.e.,
in the oral cavity and the terminal ileum and also in the Urinary tract.


The microflora of humans are extremely composite and comprises
of more than 200 species of bacteria. The physical composition of a typical
plant life gets influenced by several agents, including genetics, age, sex,
strain, nutrition and diet of the mortal.

The microflora
of the digestive tract of human

The stomach contains fewer bacteria due to its high acidity
nature. However, there are some bacteria that survive there like the Helicobacter pylori whose human
interaction got discovered in the 1980’s and that is currently proving to be
the cause of most cases of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

Likewise, the small intestine contains small numbers of Streptococci, Lactobacilli, and yeasts, particularly Candida albicans. Nevertheless, bigger numbers of these bacteria
are found in the lower parts of the ileum, which is a section of the small
intestine before the large intestine.

The colon is the main site for bacteria in the body. Several
bacteria like Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Coliforms
(e.g. E. coli), Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Clostridium reside in the large intestine. Approximately twenty
percent of the faeces of an ordinary person consist of bacteria, most of which
have come from the colon.




of digestive tract of herbivores

From herbivores, we discuss cow because cow is a ruminant. Cows are not the only ruminant animals. Other ruminants
include gazelles, giraffes, moose, antelope, caribou, sheep, goats, and deer.
Other herbivores (plant eating animals) such as kangaroos, camels and llamas
have stomachs that are similar to rumens.

The rumen is home to billions and billions of
microbes, including bacteria, protists, fungi, and viruses. These many
different rumen microbes form a complex community of organisms that interact
with one another, helping the animal digest its food.

Rumen microbes help the cow eat hay, which is
made of cellulose and other polymers, which are long molecules that the animal
cannot digest, but microbes can. The microbes break down the cellulose into
smaller bits which the cow can take in, or absorb. The microbes use special
proteins called enzymes to break down cellulose into small bits.



respiratory Tract’s Microflora.

A large number of bacterial species inhabit the upper
respiratory tract since it lacks ciliated epithelium that is an efficient
cleansing action. For example, the nostrils are always heavily colonized, with Staphylococcus

Microbe of the Skin

Man’s epidermis is not a fertile region for microorganisms to
inhabit since the surface is comparatively dry and somewhat acidic. It,
therefore, impede the development of many microbes but, however, inhabited by
few that have adjusted to the skin. An example is the Propionibacterium acne
and the Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Nostrils’ Microflora.

Organisms’ nostrils are a habitat to the Gram-positive pathogens
as Staphylococcus aureus. The
Microorganism is recognised well for its duty in health centres in which it is
the primary causal agent of systemic infection and surgical injury.

There are many dissimilar types of kinship that the body can
induce with the microflora. These are:


It is a “mutual benefit”, as both
organisms get benefit from association from each other. For instance, E. coli
synthesize and secrete vitamin K and B12 which is profitable for host. In return,
E. coli gets warm & nutrient and moist rich environment for its better


In this type of association, one organism
gets benefit while the other is neither benefited nor harmed. Bacteria have no
commensalism relationships with human beings. If bacteria present in our body
or on the body, they play a role which is either beneficial (antagonism of
microbes) or harmful.


coli is present in the digestive tract of human and other organisms
where it causes no harm and consequently no disease. But when it enters into
the urogenital tract of organisms, it may be harmful (pathogenic).

aureus is a bacterium of nose microflora found in the upper portion of
respiratory tract. If it gains entry into the cells by any wound or bleeding or
burn it becomes harmful may be pathogenic. (



of the Microflora

The Microflora exhibit certain characteristics. These are:


The microflora are also known as Microbiota and are not typical
disease causing micro-organisms found in and on healthy individuals.


The microflora are extremely abundant in terms of sheer numbers.
For instance, an ordinary human has approximately 1013 body cells and 1014
individual microflora.

found externally:

Microflora are found more often than not on the skin, eyes,
nose, oral fissure as well as on the throat and lower parts of the urethra and
the large intestine

Benefits of microflora:

Preventing colonization by microbial anatgonism competing
with nutrients and space and produce toxic condition or environmental condition
to keep harmful pathogens away (acidity in vagina).

Develop immune system by keeping it active by providing
antigens. (

are essential for us to survive.

gain their food from the stuff in our pie hole.

If colonies
of bacteria are worn out by poisons or antibiotics, they must be replaced
otherwise we would die ultimately. (

They provide a host
defence mechanism by taking control on ecological niches for bacteria, e.g. the intestinal villi.

Bacteria produce
and excrete various compounds like vitamin B12 and vitamin K in the intestine
which are important nutrients for host.

The oral microflora
assist in immunity through inducing low level of circulating and secretory antibiotics
that kill pathogens. In other words, they enhance body’s immunity.

The oral bacterial
flora kill nonindigenous species by producing inhibitory fatty acids, peroxides
and bacteriocins (it is a protein and bacreria produce it, it helps in stamping
and killing microbes). (

help to digest food as they break down foodstuffs that are normally
indigestible by the host into forms that are easily digestible by the hosts.

The Microflora
protects the host from  infection by harmful
pathogenic organisms.

They produce
antibacterial substances as by product of metabolism, so they have a local
antibiotic effect which retard the attack of invaders on host.

stimulate an immunological response (an antibody-mediated immune response) as
they act as antigens in the human body. (

Disadvantages of microflora:

is harmful when overgrown (i.e. use of antibiotics) and misplaced (i.e. urinary
tract flora may placed with facel flora). (

Microflora may also
cause disease in following conditions:

If individual
become immunocompromised.

If he change his
anatomical location as usual. (


There are few limitations of microflora to the human body as
well. For example, most of the microflora are pathogens and may cause
infectious diseases. Similarly, if microflora take control on certain tissues,
they can cause infection as well as destruction. Likewise, the Microbe may
absorb some of the hosts nutrients due to competition, leading to the
development of bacterial antibiotic resistance in humans. (

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