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Imaging modalities, is one
of the diagnostic method used by veterinarian to give information on clinically
relevant conditions that are hard to diagnose. Laboratory tests and imaging
techniques are amongst the methods used for the diagnosis of heart disease and
heart failure in the field of human cardiology (Spratt et al., 2005). Several
assays have been developed and became available for use in small animals (Kim et
al., 2015). Imaging techniques provide non-invasive, more accurate, more
accessible, cheaper, and more convenient impact to the patient and client
(Chetboul et al., 2012)    

Among the diagnostic imaging
techniques, echocardiography is the most useful and effective diagnostic
modalities in diagnosing heart diseasesU1  or conditions (Browns et al., 2007). Size and cardiac silhouette of
the heart in echocardiography give the veterinarian a better information to
diagnose the underlying causes that lead to the abnormalities presentation of
the heart (Chetboul et al., 2012). The images may also provide clues to the specific
disease present. Echocardiography images are captured in real-time and this is
why the structure and movement of the body’s internal organs including the blood
flow is very clear (Spalla et al., 2016). Echocardiography is one of the most
useful diagnostic modalities and preferred by clinician as it gives clear
imaging on the structure of soft tissues, noninvasiveU2  and presents no known
hazard to both the clinician and patient (King et al., 2006). U3 

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The development of
ultrasound has contributed great opportunities for diagnostic cardiac imaging.
For more than 30 years, echocardiography has been the most important and
cost-effective diagnostic imaging modality in clinical cardiology (Orvalho et
al., 2017).

The importance of echo
reflection and the concept behind echocardiography, was first demonstrated by
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799), when he showed that reflected echoes of
inaudible sound enabled bats to navigate (Holmer et al., 2001). With the
discovery of piezoelectricity by the Curies in 1880 came the ability to create
ultrasonic waves. Lewis Richardson’s suggestion, in 1912, that an echo-ranging
technique could be used to detect underwater objects was followed by the
development of the SONAR (Sound Navigation and Ranging) system by Langevin in
1915 (Holmer et al, 2001), in time to be used for detecting enemy submarines
during World War I. By 1941, in time for World War II, the U.S. Navy was using
reflected radio waves to detect the presence of airplanes, a technology that
they termed RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging). The ultrasonic pulse-echo
technique was first used for non-military purposes by Sergei Sokolov in 1937, and
then by Floyd Firestone in 1942, for the detection of flaws in metals (Acierno
et al, 2002). U4 

Numerous advances have occurred
following this. The evolution of echocardiography involves the development of
its many modalities of A-mode, M-mode, contrast echocardiography,
two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE), Doppler ultrasound, transesophageal
echocardiography (TEE) and intravascular applications (Braunwald, 2001). The use of
echocardiography has been associated with favourable outcomes, most probably on
the basis of facilitation of appropriate therapyU5 . However, there are many imaging modalities used to diagnose heart
diseases, no single guidelines
emphasize that no single diagnostic workup satisfies all imaging requirements
in heart failure, other modalities can provide additional information about
specific questions (especially tissue characterization), and echocardiography
is an important imaging modalities in the management of heart failure

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