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I. IntroductionPrimary production is essential for biological life to occur in aquatic ecosystems. These organisms create energy through photosynthesis. As such, these autotrophs are at the lowest level in the food chain. Primary production is what ties the Arctic sea ecosystem together. As there are little plants living in the sea, primary production is relied on by microorganisms. Despite their size, they are able to harvest enough sunlight to turn into energy for themselves and other organisms. Primary producers get eaten by consumers who also are eaten by even larger consumers in order to obtain energy. Through photosynthesis, they are the base for many food webs in the Arctic sea. As the Arctic sea ice continues to melt, the primary producers can be affected by the change, causing a change in the food web as well. With this climate change, it could lead to trophic mismatches between primary producers and their fellow consumers.II. Background Phytoplankton, microscopic creatures, are what make up majority of primary producers throughout the marine ecosystem. As stated above, they are able to obtain energy through the process of photosynthesis. Half the world’s autotrophs are these microscopic organisms. The photonic zone, the thin sunlight layer of the ocean, is where the photosynthesis occurs. However they are difficult to observe as they cannot be seen from the Arctic surface. The cause for that is the chlorophyll that gives the phytoplankton their vibrant colors cannot penetrate through the intervening sea ice (Middleton 2017). Phytoplankton also need mineral nutrients in order for growth to take place. Most nutrients is lost to the lower levels of the sea due to gravitational sinking and are replenished by the mixing of deeper waters. As such, availability of needed factors is limited but crucial for primary production in the ocean. The availability might change due to the change in climate, however there is the chance that unforeseen consequences can occur as well. As with any ecosystems that goes through change, organisms learn to adapt to their environment in order to survive. How phytoplankton react and adapt to the climate change is a topic that scientist have been doing research on. Some microorganism could be just fine and adapt to the climate change quickly, while other types may not adjust well to the increase in temperature. Studies have shown that microorganisms adapting rapidly can lead to higher rates in photosynthesis – they can produce more energy, channel faster growth rates and better capacity for competition with other phytoplankton (Schaum 2017). From the sound of that, climate change doesn’t seem to be as terrible as researchers say climate change is. Why is climate change considered as serious threat to aquatic environments? Even though some types of phytoplankton have been shown to be adaptable to the climate changes, scientist still do not know if it is the same for other types of aquatic microorganisms. III. Ice-Algae Due to climate change the Arctic sea ice has been getting thinner for the past 30 years. This has opened up a new opportunity for researchers as Arctic algal blooms have been sighted at inhospitable regions where phytoplankton, specifically ice algae, for the past seven years since 2011. What are algal blooms? Algal blooms are increases of the algae population, and are mostly seen in early spring for ice algae. The timing and size of the bloom depends on the thickness of snow on the Arctic sea ice. It also depends on how much sunlight penetrates through the sea ice. Normally ice-algae blooms are observed only in ice free waters. In 2011, however, an algal bloom was observed underneath the sea-ice covered region of the Chukchi Sea, which was thought to be uninhabitable for any kind of phytoplankton. This would lead to many studies on the ice-algal blooms, as research shows that the climate change of the ice is indeed affecting the time the ice-algal blooms occur. Ice algae communities are found at the bottom of the ice and are wide spread across the Arctic ocean. They can also be found through columns of sea ice and within brine channels. When the summer sea ice melts, ice algae are released and sent to the freshing surface water. The ice algae are prone to aggregate with one another, due to their stickiness, and soon follow sedimentation. Ice algae must rely on other means in order to stay close to their sea-ice habitat in order to bridge the gap between the melting summer ice and the freezing during autumn. This leads to the ice-fauna being deprived from their food resource, but recent study by Lee (as cited by Assmay, 2013) shows that the thinning ice could lead to new habitats in the sea ice. Buoyant ice-algal aggregates have been observed, little is known about them. What is the ecological importance of ice-algal aggregates during the melting season? One theory suggests that ice-algal aggregates seed the next spring bloom, but this has not been considered. Most current models that show the ice-algal production and biomass do not take account of the aggregations. Therefore they are underestimated despite the contribution ice algae give to the Arctic ocean ecosystem through primary production.

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