I love watching animated sciencefiction movies. This assignment gave me a chance to study in-depth of themovie-making art, graphics, design and technology used for filming such movies.I was very much fascinated by the’Jurassic Park (1993)’ movie and its sequels that were released – ‘The LostWorld: Jurassic Park (1997)’, ‘Jurassic Park III (2001)’, and ‘Jurassic World(2015)’. Another sequel, ‘Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom’ is coming in 2018.Introduction to Jurassic ParkJurassic park is an AmericaSci-Fi movie based on a theme park created by rich men and visionary people. Thistheme park was created on an isolated island and was inhabited by geneticallyengineered dinosaurs who escape their confinement and rampage on the humancharacters. This movie brought a revolution in graphics and design industry.
Ittook nearly 65 years in its creation.Logo and Corporate BrandingThe brilliance of graphic designlies in the perfect corporate branding of Jurassic theme park and making itbelievable. Jurassic Park LogoThe logo of Jurassic park was createdby Sandy Collora and Tom Martin. It showed a Tyrannosaurus skeleton contained in a yellow circle andtowering above a jungle silhouette and a black bar with words “Jurassic Park”. Thislogo had such a strong impact on the viewers that it was used as merchandiseover the years.It was the only movie in theseries which used the logo in the film. The design of Jurassic park was verysimple emphasizing mainly on bold colours.
The skeletal iconography was alsoused on stone obelisks outside every dinosaur padlock in the movie. They used mostlurid, artificial colours possible that you wouldn’t find in the natural world.One can see eye popping colours in the entire movie on cars, toys, t-shirts orID Cards. This took the viewers intofake external imagery that makes the jungle and animals look real. The animalslooked more real in containment. Changes in logo The logo underwent minor changesin every sequel. In Jurassic park 2- The Lost World, it appeared as if the logo wascarved on a stone or on cracked wood to give it a primitive look.
The bar statedThe Lost world with subtitle Jurassic Park. Due to more letters and spacing requiredin the bar, the yellow circle was no longer a perfect circle but it can hardlybe noticed. In Jurassic park 3, T.rex skeleton was replaced by Spinosaurus skeleton. Claw markswere added to the end representing III and the black and yellow colours of thecircle and bar was replaced with metal.
Silver Pteranodons could be seen flyingin the entire movie. In Jurassic World, The backgroundcolour was changed to blue and the title was written in silvery white colourinstead of red. The skeleton was again changed to the T.
Rex and the logo wasdimly lit. This was done to give an impression that the logo was carved on ametal or stone. In Jurassic Park: The Fallen Kingdom (which is set to be releasedin 2018), The logo is noticeably cracked to a severe extent to give an impressionof destruction and ruin. The Bar contains the Jurassic world as main title andthe fallen kingdom as Subtitle. Surrounding the logo is fire ember suggestingsome volcanic activity giving the logo an apocalyptic look.Each and every logo depicted astory in itself. Every object and the colour had significance in the logo. Visual effectsBefore production of JurassicPark (1993)Many movies came into beingrelated to dinosaurs before the production of Jurassic park.
Before 1990s, mostvisual effects were given by slow motions and people in suits. Dinosaurs werebrought to life on screen by magnifying lizards. Puppets and men in rubbersuits were also used in replacement of dinosaurs. But the most successful meanswas slow motion animation in which miniature dinosaurs were created and filmedframe by frame, carefully adjusting their positions.
Animators could use theillusion of flawless motion in the movie. Jurassic Park (1993)The visual effects in Jurassic parkcreated revolution in movie making by filming unrealistic things. They madeample use of drawings to implement the design in robotics by creating lifesized remote controlled robots that moves underneath latex skin, giving it arealistic motion.
This movie used computer generated imagery (CGI) along withlive action.Computer graphic imagery is a computer graphical application. CGIis a typical hand-drawn animation or stop motion, which consists of aseries of drawings or photographs to create the illusion of movement. It ismainly used for 3d models, computer aided design, graphic design, video games,visual effects, visualization, virtual energy, virtual engineering, virtualreality, virtual cinematography. “Go-motion”,a variation of this technique developed at George Lucas’ Industrial Light &Magic (ILM), used tiny computer-driven motors to control the movements of theseminiature models. The limitations of working with miniature models areeliminated when the creature is designed and developed within computer space. CGimages for Jurassic Park were actually accomplished in two ways.
One method wasto copy with laser small models built by the film’s conceptual artist, as ablueprint. Their exact proportions would therefore be stored onto a computer.After completing the fully animated skeletons, layers of colouring were appliedto represent skins and muscles. Other method was to draw designs andprosthetics of the different dinosaurs. The production used computergraphics for creating dinosaurs. They scanned models into the computers byfiring a laser at the three-dimensional rubber prosthetic model and extract thedata. It was similar to 3D printing; taking an object and turning it intodata.
They then reconstruct the data to make it work in the computer.An animation piece of software called SoftImage 3D was used to figure out the joint placement on the dinosaurs.After that, the data has to be “rigged” with a digital armature inwireframes. This is the framework for the dinosaur that helps provide itsstructure allowing it to stand up, move, and run. Next, the dinosaurs get theirskin. They used a program called Viewpaint,which allowed them to actually paint the texture of the skin in the computer.To put all of the separate images together, they needed to be rendered bymassive graphics computers.
Finally, the dinosaur needs to be put into ascene through a process called compositing.This is where all the pieces to the puzzle are assembled together. CGI shotsare combined together with live-action shots and any background and foregroundimagery referred to as platephotography.
Another way of producing computer generated animation was toincorporate the work of a trained model animator. Another interesting factabout the Jurassic Park was artists had to get into character to createrealistic dinosaurs. The digital artists took video of themselves acting likethe ‘Gallimimus’ herd for reference before they animated the stampedescene; it helped them create more realistic instinctive behaviour.Jurassic park was perfect blend of direction and design by Spielberg and RickCarter.
Jurassic World (2015)The computer graphics andanimation improved tremendously after the first Jurassic park movie. The initialplan was to use both the techniques; Stan Winstons’s animatronic behemothsalong with Phil Tippett’s stop-motion models. But dinosaurs in the JurassicWorld were mostly computer graphics, with just a few animatronic creatures. Thebiggest change in this film was that it used motion capture to create theperformance of raptors. The huge raptor which were originally humans enactingas dinosaurs and their motion was captured in computer. The team even used a newly developed muscle firingsystem to fire and squeeze the muscles at the right points. For look,movement and behaviour of D-Rex, the team references various animals includingrhino, elephants, hippopotamus and ostriches.
A lot was changed in theindustry of visual effects since the first film of the series was released.Since the background plates of the original generally consisted of static andnon-moving shots with few moving camera shots. Spielberg wanted to shoot the lostworld just like the way wild animals were shot by awildlife photographer, whichmeant that the background shows some random movement by camera capturing shotsfrom every possible angle viz. through cranes, camera car shots, dollys, handheld shots.
Sound effects Sound effects in the movie playeda very important role. As no one has ever heard the voice of a dinosaur so ithas to made by mixing different natural voices.The voice of T. Rex was a mixtureof tiger, alligator, and baby elephant sounds. The voice of deadlyDilophosaurus was created by combining howler monkeys, hawk screeches, rattlesnake hisses and the swan calls. Baby Raptor sounded like baby owls and babyfoxes. In Jurassic World, they already hadJurassic park’s amazing work, they had some to experiment with the sound of allnew “Indominus Rex”.
The sound designers knew that they needed to make this dinosaurbaddie sound distinct. The end result was a mixture of the old standbys forwhat you would think a dinosaur roar is made up of but with some higher pitchesto make it stand out as something totally different than the T-Rex.