Human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) causes a chronic infection which develops into acquiredimmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The patients with AIDS are more susceptibleto infections by many opportunistic pathogens and these infections to AIDSpatients have high morbidity and mortality(Agholi et al. 2013; Bhaijee F et al.2011). A constant transmission of HIV and parasites are common among most ofthe developing countries (UNAIDS/WHO 2002).
The parasitic infectionsare among the most of the frequent infections in patients with HIV/AIDS fromdeveloping countries. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patientscomplain acute and chronic watery diarrhea most commonly associated with severeweight loss (slim disease). The slim disease in association with a positive HIVcases is an AIDS-defining illness (Deveikis 1994). These gastrointestinalillness to HIV-infected individuals are in the threat to develop chronicparasitosis (Scandlyn 2000).Reports indicated thatdiarrhea occurs in 30 to 60 percent of HIV/AIDS patients in developed countriesand many other similar types of research had reported that 50 to 93 percent ofall such patients would have marked GIT symptoms during the course of theirillness (McGowan, 2017).The parasiticinfestations among HIV/AIDS patient depend on the endemic status of thatspecific parasite in the particular region (Janoff and Smith 1988; Sapkota etal.
2008). Microsporidia and coccidianare the commonly isolated parasites from the stool specimens of HIV/AIDSassociated diarrheal patients and the non opportunistic protozoans parasitesare amoeboids and flagelletes (Sherchan et al. 2012). C.
parvum, Isospora belliand E. histolytica has been reported as the most frequently identifiedorganisms in HIV infected individuals with diarrhea from Nepal, India and othercountries (Ahmed and Chowdhary 2015; Kulkarni et al. 2009).Many researches fromdeveloped and developing countries have revealed that some gastrointestinalsyndromes due to intestinal parasites were often associated with severediarrhea in HIV patients. Parasites frequently associated with acute andchronic diarrhea in HIV disease include various species of protozoans andhelmenthic parasites which are Cryptosporidium spp, Isospora belli,Microsporidia spp, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba spp, Cyclosporacayetanensis, Blastocystis, Strongyloides, and Ascaris lumbricoides (Gbakima etal. 2007; Gupta et al.
2008). The protozoan parasites although being lesscommon are associated with the highest number of mortalities (Agholi et al.2013). The health statuses of HIV AIDS patient concerning the opportunisticinfections are constantly monitored by various governmental andnon-governmental agencies (Mahato et al. 2013; Wasti et al. 2009).
Detection of intestinalparasites and understanding the status and significance of the infections theycause will greatly facilitate in proper management and treatment of HIV/AIDSpatients. The patients may require the combination therapy and this isnoteworthy when parasites are detected from the stool samples of HIV-infectedpatients visiting different rehabilitation centers in developing countries likeNepal. Hence the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence ofparasitic infections from two different HIV care centers and antiretrviraltherapy centers.