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Human body report

In this Report
I am going to write about the digestive system and how this system functions
normally.  I am then going to write about
a disease that affects this body system, I have chosen Cirrhosis of the liver I
will explain what this is and how it affects the the digestive system.

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digestive system

digestive system consists of a group of organs that work together to convert
food into energy and nutrients which the body uses for energy growth and
repair.  The mouth is the beginning of
the of the digestive system this is where digestion starts, when you chew it
begins to mechanically break down food, saliva then lubricates the food making
it easier to swallow and also adds enzymes that start to breakdown
carbohydrates.  When u swallow food it passes
through a long tube in your body from your mouth to your stomach called your
oesophagus which has muscles that contract to help push food down into your
stomach these contractions are called peristalsis.

 When the food reaches your stomach strong acid
help to break down fibres in meat and kill pathogens, enzymes are also produced
that start to digest proteins, the muscles then churn the food into a fine
paste.  After the food leaves the stomach
it passes into a very long tube called the small intestine, digestive enzymes
are made in the pancreas and walls of the small intestine they complete the
process of digesting fats, carbs, and proteins, the gall bladder then adds bile
to the food which helps aid fat digestion. 
The small intestine is where final digestion occurs and absorption of
digested food into the blood.  The final
part of the digestive system is the colon which removes water from undigested
food and passes it into the blood. The rectum then compacts and stores waste
and the anus expels it.

of the liver  

Cirrhosis is
the result of damage to the liver over a long period and can be down to many different
disorders, the damage causes scarring known as fibrosis.  Cirrhosis is a progressive disease that
develops slowly over a number of years, build up of scar tissue can stop the
liver functioning and can eventually lead to liver failure, which can be

The liver is
the largest organ in the body and a very important one as it keeps the body
functioning normally, it is also a vital component of the immune system. The
liver preforms many critical functions such as removing or neutralizing poisons,
bacteria and germs from the blood, it produces immune agents to control
infection and makes proteins that regulate blood clotting also it produces bile
that help absorb fat and fat soluble vitamins. 
The liver has another important role it regulates the supply of glucose
and lipids that the body uses as fuel. 
In order to preform these critical functions, the liver cells must be working
normally and must have a close proximity to the blood because the substances
that are added or removed by the liver are transported to and from the liver by
the blood.        

 When Cirrhosis of the liver occurs scar tissue
replaces normal healthy tissue and blocks the flow of blood through the organ
stopping it from working properly.  When
liver cells are injured they start to come together in clusters of newly formed
liver cells within the scar tissue called regenerative nodules, these are lumps
that appear when the liver tries to heal the damage.  As the liver continues to be damaged and
scarred it may stop preforming its normal functions ie it may stop cleaning
harmful wastes, toxins and drugs from the blood, it may also stop making enough
of the proteins your body needs.  As Cirrhosis
worsens, almost all liver function is lost which results in the organ becoming
harder and smaller, in relation to this several problems and complications may
arise such as:

Fluid builds
up in the stomach and legs

Bile salts
build up in the skin causing itching and jaundice

from large veins in the oesophagus GI tract may occur

An enlarged
spleen, called splenomegaly

In the early
stages of Cirrhosis there may be little or no symptoms at all resulting in many
people being undiagnosed or finding out during tests for unrelated illnesses.  Early symptoms of Cirrhosis are as follows:

fatigue or even exhaustion



Loss of
appetite and weight loss

Loss of sex

sleep pattern

in the liver area

Blotchy red

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