Humanlife cycle is so complex that it has to pass through different life stages withpassage of time of life. There are numerous issues which affect the developmentof the personality of an individual. The issues are divided mainly into twotypes such as internal and external.
And both the internal and external issuesplay vital roles in case of understanding of the behavior, decision and actionetc of an individual (Borenstein et al, 2012). The stages of life can be asEarly Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, and Old age. Among the ages, the mid-lifeage can also be divided into three phases such as Early Adulthood, MiddleAdulthood, and Late Adulthood. A number of varied experiences are occurred inthe development of personality in the lid life on an individual in where thebehavior and actions of individual are dealt with the external factors of an individualsuch as family background, early schooling, social status and relationship withparents spouse etc. The changes in mid-life on an individual personality canalso be divided into three major types such as Physical change, Cognitivechange and Psychological change. And the changes are discussed in the essayabout the mid-life changes of an individual. Understanding the physical,cognitive and psychological changes in mid lifePhysicalchange of the mid-life deals with the change of appearance, looks, and the mentaland physical health of an individual and this type of change make the bodystructure of the human beings.
Cognitive change also deals with the change inperception and the changes in reasoning of individual by which an individualcan improve his/her knowledge. On the other hand psychological change dealswith the change in emotions and socializing of an individual and the change themental development of the human beings (Richards, 2004). In this case, we can discuss the socialdevelopment which consists of two important domains of social intelligence andsocial skills so that the physical, cognitive and psychological changes in midlife can be emphasized on with a view to understanding the domains of Socialintelligence and Social Competence.Social IntelligenceSocialIntelligence is introduced by Gardener as the capability and ability to defineand distinguish an individual person through evaluating the mood, temperament,inspiration and intentions of an individual so that the person can be easilydistinguished from the others. According to the introduction of Gardener, themood, temperament, motives and inspiration of an individual helps to shape thebehavior of an individual and how he/she interacts with others in the society(Richards, 2004).
The age of maturity atthe time of the physical, cognitive and psychological changes in mid-lifebecomes socially intelligent with a view to understanding an individual with inthe given circumstances.Social CompetenceThe second one is Social Competencewhich is defined by Bierman as the ability and capacity to communicate adaptivereactions according to the interpersonal demands and to adjust with the socialbehavior. The capacity also helps to be benefited by oneself and in accordancewith social norms and morals (Richards, 2004).
In this case, Academic, Social,and Emotional Learning also help to identify five major competencies with aview to providing basis for social development. The five major competences aregiven below: Self-Awareness: Self- Awareness deals with thecapacity of an individual in case of understanding one self. Self- awareness isconsidered as an honest assessment way of defining own personalitySocial awareness: Social awareness also deals withthe capacity on an individual in case of understanding others believes,understandings and reactions in a particular situation and thinking,understanding and interacting effectively of an individual (Rao et al, 2014).Self –management: Self-management also deals with theability on an individual in case of handling of emotions and reactions in asituation so that the ability can facilitate oneself and other with a view toaccomplishing goals and objectives in a critical condition (Geoffroy et al,2011).Relationship skills: Relationship skills also deal withthe capacity of an individual in case of maintaining sound and healthy relationswith others.
The capacity also helps to maintain the effective communication,co-operation, and coordination in critical situation. Decision making: Decision making also deals with theappropriate consideration of all relevant attributes of individual as well asexpected consequences of decision taken by the individual through valuing othersand standing by decision taken by other.Life course in mid lifeThemid-life is conducted with both objectivity and subjectivity and how theindividual crafts his/her life according to the view of developmentalscientists. The changes are occurred at every stage of individual havingdifferent kinds of challenges but the changes during mid-life are completedwith multiple challenges (Rao et al, 2014). The individual has to take variouseffective actions with a view to facing those challenges in context of wholelife stage. Personalities with different backgrounds also play vital roleshaving a distinctive approach in case of handling the same situation.Classical Approachto Change at Mid lifeAccordingto the classical approach, the personality of individual can be made in the mid-lifestage through growing consensus and for this reason, the changes are occurredin the mid-life being stable in the mid-life. Maslow and Rogers also definethis stage as an age of integrating positive changes in an individual.
Mid-lifeis also defined by Carl as a stage in where the emotions are suppressed by boththe men and women (Geoffroy et al, 2011). A seventh psychosocial stage isdefined by Erickson through explaining in reference with two kinds of termssuch as Generativity and Stagnation. On the other hand, the middle Adulthood asage of conflict has been defined by Levinson.
There are also different kinds ofthoughts regarding the changes in mid-life of an individual because it is veryuseful in case of considering about the people tenting to gauge the events oftheir life having various social experiences.Midlife IssuesMidlife and IdentityCrisisAccordingto the Erikson, the midlife is full of crises in reference with two kinds of termssuch as Generativity and Stagnation in where the Generativist deals with thefeeling of achievement and expressed in form of parenting and mentoring and onthe other hand the Stagnation deals with the feeling of suppression and contributinglittle in the improvement of next generation in the society. Erickson has alsodefined the mid-life that a continuous conflict between Generativity andStagnation is occurred in the mind of an individual. People try their best toresolve this conflict tend so that they can lead a better life because theconflict can left the people with sense of rejection. Figure:Erikson’s stages of psychological development; Source: (SCHWEBEL, 1999)Onthe other hand, Levinson has also defined the mid-life as age of inner conflictand age of “personal crises”. In this case, the researchers are conducted withmen having dissatisfied with their personal as well as professional life. Aperson can be made radical changes in case of change old career or divorceaccording to Levinson (Skoog, 2012). Levinson has also dealt with the peoplewho could be able to resolve their inner conflicts with a view to achievingtheir balanced and contended life.
Thereare also different kinds of identity crises in case of physical, cognitive and psychologicalchanges in mid-life. Different theorist have also been defined and discussedwith different perspectives. In this case, the Generativity helps an individualfor the personality development affected with social roles and expectations.There have also conducted with various researches considering “prime time” forwomen.
In this case, the narrative psychology of mid-life deals with theongoing process in case of crafting the story of life.Mental Well-beingThemental health id the prime concern in mid-life in midlife of an individual becausesome tremendous changes have been occurred at this stage of life in where anindividual has to assess and analyze his/her life so that the individual can besensitive and concerned about the success and failures of life. In this case thesense plays vital roles because the failure in achieving the sense leads todepression which a mental health disorder is creating the feelings of sadness withdaily functioning (Rao et al, 2014). Depression is also responsible forcreating other issues such as depressive disorder, psychotic depression andpostpartum depression etc. The depressive disorder ratio between females andmales is at a ratio of 2:1 at the time of a woman’s childbearing years. Figure: Mental well-being; Source: (Dregan and Gulliford, 2013)There has now reason for depressionin mid-life and in this case, the reason can be genetics such as sex hormones,life stress and trauma, sexual abuse and domestic violence etc and thesefactors are also associated with the depression for women in their mid-lifebecause of the traumatic and uncontrollable life events.
Relationship Change in midlifeTherehave various relationships maintained by an individual because therelationships have important influences on the development of a personality.There are also different roles played by the individual in case of makingdifferent relationship with a view to contributing to improve the quality of relationship(Son, 2011). For this reason, the social and emotional interaction of an individualwith other in the society also plays vital roles in mid-life and other stagesof life. The physical and mental well-being of a person is also affected byvarious changes in the mid-life of an individual. Marital RelationshipApositive relationship is maintained between spouses and mid-life but theanxiety of an individual deals with the imbalances in the physical, emotionaland social symptoms because the pressure created on the spouse should also bemaintained to build the relationship. The relationships can also be improved ina positive manner the involvement of both of the spouses so that the powerimbalance can result in submission directly with anxiety and stress among the spouses. In this case, the adaptive spouse can directlyinfluenced by the power imbalance which occurs the higher chances of affectingphysically and psychologically.
Figure:Marital relationship; Source: (Geoffroyet al, 2011)Arelationship can be developed between education and cheered partner in wherethe adaptive partners can be influenced under the Bachelor’s and Master’s levelof education because the higher level education can creates the higher chancesof emotional and psychological symptoms. In this case, the critical pressuresare faced by the adaptive spouse in case of maintaining the relationship. Theyounger adaptive spouse faces the lesser expectations comparing the others. Relationship withChildrenTherehas a relationship with children achieving the maturing age affected in midlifestage. In this case the parents should be concerned on raising their childrenat the time of leaving their childhood home and starting their own lives. Bythis way, the parents can be more responsible for the future of their childrenand the ways by which their children can be affected in the society (Richards, 2004).
The children also pass the age of adolescence in the mid life having the dreamsof wanting to pursue. In this case, the control over children’s life can belost by the parents. There have some difficulties to take the phenomena forsome parents but they should be to take the decision of the children to improvethe quality and experiences of life.Figure:Relationship with children; Source: (Hazell, 2014)Theparents should believe in the term “emptying of nest” for making positive influencefor mothers and sometimes it is too difficult for some couples depending ontheir children on finding it extremely to go out their children (SCHWEBEL,1999).
But the middle aged parents are happy with the maturing tendency oftheir children so that they can choose their careers with a view to leading alife. The children can be optimistic about their children’s future at this timethrough making a sense of relief.Moreoverthe midlife parents face difficult conflicts with maturing children in thesociety because they are more concerned about their children. The maturingchildren are suitable for developing self-awareness and self –conscious but theparents faces difficulties in case of to conducting with them (Hazell, 2014.The parents want to be the children on their own choice of life but the demandof children cannot be considered in this case. So, according to the midlifestages, the way of dealing with children should be easy so that they can enjoythe liberty to make their choices. Conclusion andRecommendationsThereare different stages passed by human beings having experiences with variety ofevents.
The events can be related to the physical, cognitive and emotionalwell-being of an individual in the society. In this case, the mid-life is themost important phase of life in where the individual forms own personalitythrough there will be different kinds of changes including positivity andstability (Dregan and Gulliford, 2013). Physical, cognitive and psychologicalchanges in mid-life have been also defined and analyzed through presentingvarious schools of thoughts and approaches in mid-life. Thereare also different kinds of issues occurred in every individual’s life in caseof conducting the actions of every individual. The relationship can be differentin midlife depending on the social role of a person such as marital relationshipand relation with children.
The adaptive partners can be influenced under thehigher level of education because the higher level education can creates thehigher chances of emotional and psychological symptoms. In this case, the criticalpressures are faced by the adaptive spouse in case of maintaining therelationshipThebehavior of an individual in mid-life is also analyzed on discussing of theprevious events and background because the mid-life is the prime time of anindividual life. The destruction and depression can be occurred because of thenegative thoughts about the changes of life. So it is required to assess the mid-lifein different perspective (Dregan and Gulliford, 2013). Moreover the parentsshould analyze the developmental phase of the children and their decisions witha view to making better choices for the future.
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