HRM revolves around human beings in the organisation. Since human beings are highly complex and dynamic, the management of men in the organisation is an important and challenging job. No two people are similar in mental abilities, feel differently, react differently, have different behaviours and they differ widely also as a group and are subject to many varied influences. Unlike machines, which can be controlled, people are responsive, they feel, think and act therefore they can not be operated. They therefore need a tactful handing by management personnel.
HRM is the comprehensive process of using a Human Approach for managing people of an organisation. Human Resources approach enables the management to view the people as an important resource. This approach enables the management to utilise the manpower not only for the organisational growth but also for the growth, development and satisfaction of employees. Thus, HRM is a system that focuses on human resources development on one hand and effective management of people on the other hand in order to ensure human dignity in their employment.
HRM is involved in providing human dignity to the employees taking into account their capacity, potentially, talents, achievement, motivation, skill, commitment and abilities.
According to Leon C. Megginson from the national point of view Human Resources as, “the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population; whereas from the view point of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its employees.”
The Human Resource in any organisation has a paramount importance in the success of any organisation as problems regarding human resources can cause huge problems in an organisation.
Human Resources Management is concerned with the “people” dimension in management. Since every organisation is made up of people acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high level of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation are essential to achieve organisational objectives. This is true regardless of the type of organisation, government, business, education, health, recreation or social action. Getting and keeping good people is critical to the success of every organisation, whether profit or non-profit, public or private.
1.2 EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
HRM has changed in name various times throughout history. The name change was mainly due to the change in social and economic activities throughout history.
1.2.1 Industrial Welfare
The first form of HRM was Industrial Welfare. It evolved in 1833 when the Factories Act stated that there should be male factory inspectors. In 1878, a legislation was passed in order to regulate the hours of work for children and women by limiting it to 60 hours a week. And during this time Trade Unions began to form. In 1868, the first Trade Union Conference was held and with it began collective bargaining.
1.2.2 Recruitment And Selection
The process of Recruitment and Selection started when Mary Wood was asked to start engaging girls in the First World War. In the First World War, Government initiatives to make the best use of people lead to the development of personnel.