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However, the businessshe can establish and the inheritance she can get falls under the economicsystem.

The Government System: is the system which specifies the nature of thestate, its characteristics, rules, institutions, apparatuses, foundations,together with the ideas, notions, and values according to which state affairsare regulated, in addition to the constitution and laws which are implementedby the state (Al-Nabhani, p.13-15).The Economic System: economy is about how to manage your money, how tothrive, how to secure its sources and look for others (Economic Science), andhow to distribute it (the economic system). The economic system is therefore asystem that looks at how to distribute wealth among people according to theirperception of life (Al-Masri, p. 9 and Al-Nbahani, p. 57).In a nutshell, objecting to the sovereignty ofIslamic Systems over daily life matters under the pretext of their inability tobe implemented or invalidity of the present day temporal and spatial contextsis nothing but a claim that defies right and contravenes reality.  There is no room to discuss this issue herebut we have limited ourselves to just mentioning it out of respect for a systemthat is now perceived as a historical achievement.

The Islamic approach – and Islamic economy is onlyone of its specialized apparatuses – which prevailed from Hegira until theoverthrow of the Islamic caliphate in 1336 Hijri including & containing allthe ups and downs that it witnessed as it went through peace and turmoil. Itwas alternately carried out by two authorities: The Governor and the Judge. Thegovernor was the decision maker, Imam and leader who must abide by Sharia law;the Judge was the one who settles up disputes between conflicting parties andthe one to whom people could plead even against the Imam.It has been successively reported through HadithMutawatir that judges, since the time of the prophet, peace and blessings ofAllah be upon him, had been implementing Islamic Sharia laws in every aspect oflife, whether settling up matters in the disputes among Muslims themselves orbetween Muslims and other people.   The closest example to that are the judiciary andcourts records that have been preserved in Istanbul, Damascus, and Baghdad…etc. The Implementation of Sharia generally revolves around five aspects,namely, economy, society, education, government and foreign policy (Zayn, p.401).

Explaining and extrapolating the Islamicexperience – in terms of government – is bound up by two dimensions that shouldbe observed. First, this extrapolation should not be inspired from the enemiesof Islam, such as Orientalists and their peers. Instead, it should be based onwhat the Islamic Ulama (scholars) have themselves established in order topreserve its essence and reality away from false misconceptions. The seconddimension has to do with imposing over-generalizations on an entire community.It is methodologically wrong to judge a given community through individualhistory or even through particular micro histories such as those of princes,poets, etc… For example, judging the entirety of the rule of the UmayyadCaliphate through that of Yazid Ibn Muawiya is both limiting and limited.

Thesame thing applies to any attempt to judge the Abbasid society through itssingers and poets as an era of debauchery and unjust rule. It is likewise verylimiting to judge the same society as ascetic and isolationist through onesingle book such as Al-Ghazali’s Revivalof Religious Sciences. From what has been previously said, we canconclude that the success of the Islamic system manifested itself through twoprominent aspects, namely: Islamic Intellectual Leadership which has made itpossible for Arabs to grow from shepherds to masters and leaders of nations andfrom decadence to renaissance enlightened by Islam.The Islamic Umma culturally, civilly andscientifically pioneering the world for 12 century, thus proved the success ofits leadership, which is in itself a success of Islam  that attests to its eligibility to lead theworld.  Given the importance of money specifically andeconomy in general, Muslim Ulama (scholars) gave special attention to the conceptualizationof Islamic economy.

Different definitions ensued out of this conceptualization,and the most prominent are:Some economic researchers define Islamic Economyas “the economic doctrine of Islam in which economic life is regulatedaccording to the teachings of Islam by means of the methodological tools andintellectual assets that this doctrine possesses and which are constituted outof Islam’s ethical, scientific economy and historical ideas that are connectedto political economy or the explanation of the historical analysis of humansocieties (Al-Sadr, 1968)”.Some others consider Islamic Economy as “a guidingand regulating force for economic activity according to Islamic guidelines andeconomic policies. (Al-Fanjari, 1972, p.55-56)”.Some other writers tend to believe that it is “theset of general economic principles that we extract from Quran, Sunnah and theeconomic structures that we construct upon those principles bearing in mindhistorical and contextual change.

(Al-Fanjari, 1972, p. 56 A)”.Another definition is that it is “the set of rulesand Sharia laws that regulate money gain, expenditure and growth prospects (Al-Qahtani,2002, p. 2)”.On the basis of theprevious definitions we can conclude that the Islamic Economy is “a set ofrules, regulations and tools which are applied to the economic activity insidea Muslim society – as it had already been applied throughout the history ofIslam – to solve its economic problems as regards production, distribution andexchange issues. This system also includes all what is related to thedistribution, ownership and handling of wealth. Islam has introduced specificprinciples and codes that involve a distinguished economic policy.

Theseprinciples and this policy have been minutely implemented during the Prophet’s,Peace and Blessings be upon Him, era and to which the Khulafa Rashidun who cameafter him were fully committed. Muslim rulers and Imams throughout the historyof Islam sticked to these principles to different degrees.

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