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Histology is a field of science that focuses on
detailed studies of properties and functions of tissues. It is of importance to
conduct research on tissues as they are the building blocks of our bodies, aid
in the understanding of evolution, help in preparation of laboratory work in
other fields of science and possess the ability to help diagnosis and identify
roles of diseases that affect our communities to date such as Leukemia. The
Paraffin Technique is a popular preparation method used for histological samples
as it is able to provide sectioning of tissue samples with a small degree of
structural modification. Once the sample is prepared, staining techniques are
used to differentiate and study parts of the sample. These techniques include
Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). Haematoxylin
is a nucleic stain, producing a purplish-blue colour whereas Eosin is a
cytoplasmic stain, producing a red-pink colour. PAS reaction targets insoluble
polysaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, glycolipids, mucoproteins and
glycoproteins producing a purplish-magenta colour. Thus, all together, the
preparation and staining of histological sections are important studies for
investigations into areas such as pathology. 12

histology images are frequently used for clinical diagnosis of cancers.
Histopathologists manually examine their tissue sections for regularities of
cell shapes and tissue distributions which lead to the recognition of cancerous
growth sites. 3 Thus, histology image analysis is crucial. The use
of histology image analysis by making a histopathology computer-assisted
diagnosis (CAD) system is a growing area in cancer detecting and grading even
though it entails many challenges yet to overcome. These include the lack of software
and tools for examining huge data sets, 
inability to integrate with other platforms and algorithm
reproducibility. Compared with traditional medical image analysis, histology
image analysis focuses on high throughput complex microscopic images and
obtaining high resolution. Moreover, it was seen that models targeting
histology images improved the performance of other generative models. This
research was conducted by Dr Rodney Long and his group, which focus on the
development of image-based applications. 4

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aim of this experiment is to understand the uses of the paraffin technique in
tissue section preparations. Even though the paraffin technique is now
automated, the traditional method still thrives and provides step by step
instructions for satisfactory preparation. This deepens the understanding of
why each step is conducted and is important as well as it allows for correction
by tracing an error to a particular step in order to produce a better sample.
These histological techniques build a foundation and allow for the opportunity
into further clinical research.2

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