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Have you ever wished you had a twin to play with when you are bored? Well someday you may have that opportunity. Current research and technology scientists have created several clones like Dolly the sheep or Dewey the deer. Let’s lay down a basic understanding of what cloning is before diving deeper.Cloning is normally a natural process but two artificial processes have been discovered as well. When a fertilized egg splits into two embryos this results in identical twins. When a mother gives birth to a set of twins, the natural cloning process occurs within the mother’s womb. The splitting of the egg takes place at the beginning of the pregnancy. There are two artificial processes of cloning. The least technologically advanced option would be Artificial Embryo Twinning. Similar to natural cloning, the embryo is split into two eggs. Simply put this process occurs in a petri dish through the cutting of the egg before differentiation. The first process is called Artificial Embryo Twinning, this is low tech compared to the other process. Artificial Embryo Twinning is just like natural twinning but carried out in a Petri dish instead of in the mother. In the Petri dish the scientists cut the embryo into two, this results into twins.The second more technologically advanced process is called Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer or SCNT. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is where they grab a cell different from the sperm or egg, like a skin cell and transfer the nucleus to the egg cell to fertilize the egg. They remove the old nucleus cell and the DNA from the egg cell. If the cell turns into an embryo, then they implant it into a surrogate mother to be born. Dolly the sheep: Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to ever be cloned. Dolly was the only lamb to be born out of 277 other lambs. To create Dolly they used a udder cell from a white sheep. Dolly the sheep was born on July 5, 1996 and died February 14, 2003. She was age six when she died. She died because she had a lung tumor in her hind leg and had Arthritis. A norml life span of a sheep is eleven to twelve years, Dolly most likely died because her cell was from a six year old sheep already. There could be the question why was she cloned, and why a sheep. Well the answer is they were trying to find a medicine in the milk of farm animal. Cloning an animal allows them to find the problem and continually fix the gene problem, to build a better stock. With the advancements in cloning they can take out certain defects in people/animals. Commercial Service are now breeding/cloning these special species and selling them for 100 thousand dollars. This treatment is not permitted on human yet because there could be negative affects. In the UK there is many discussions on making it legal for therapy and treatment. Sense Dolly there has been many different animals cloned like, rabbits, mules, and etc. Ralph the Rat: Ralph was created in an institution in France. Ralph was announced to the world in 2003. Ralph toke a lot of time to create because rats start to develop right after leaving the ovaries. Finally they stabilized the egg through chemical means. Ralph created several healthy pup normally. Proving that cloned animals can create healthy normal babies. It took one hundred and twenty nine cloned embryos to create 3 rats but only one lasted a normal lifespan. Ralph was the first to be born out of the litter. Cloning rats has several benefits including medical research for human diseases and disorders. If they have several rats with the same genes they can know it is the environment that is changing if they try different medications or vaccines. The other two rats died in half the lifetime there were supposed to live. Cumulina the mouse: Cumulina the mouse was the first animal cloned from an animal adult cells to live to adulthood. Cumulina died from a natural death, of old age. Cumulina was cloned using the Honolulu technique. This method was not effective in humans though. Cumulina name is from the method that created her. Tetra the monkey: Tetra was made in october of 1999. Tetra was made through a process called Embryo splitting. Tetra was the first primate to ever be cloned. Tetra was created by professor Gerald Schatten in the Oregon National Primate research center. Tetra was born 157 days later. Tetra got her name from Ancient Greek meaning “four”.Tetra was 1 out of 4 monkeys to survive the process. After four months of her being alive the genetically modified her genes with jellyfish genes. They ended up doing the gene modification to see in different environments.Idaho Gem: Idaho gem was the first member of the horse family to be cloned. After twelve minutes of being born Idaho gem was standing and walking. This was fascinating because it was the first hybrid to be cloned. What was so interesting is that mules cannot have babies, but if you clone them they can. Idaho gem came from a fetal egg cell in 1998. The scientist worked for 3 years without success. Final in 2001 they created the Idaho gem. The scientist had 14 pregnancy in 113 attempts.(Which is amazing.) In creating the Idaho gem there was another scientist racing to create him but failed and they have been trying for eighteen months. CopyCat: CopyCat is also known as Carbon cat. CopyCat was born on December 22, 2001. CopyCat is a brown and white tabby cat. CopyCat’s Donor was a short haired cat named Rainbow. CopyCat was the first cloned pet. CopyCats cloning process was Epigenetic reprogramming. Epigenetic reprogramming is when a scientist genetically modify the epigenetic marks, such as the Methylation DNA. So even though CopyCat and Rainbow are made out of the same genes the look very different. Some people do not like cloning pets, because people expect the to act and look the same as the old one. But in reality they are to different animals.As of today CopyCat has 4 kittens. There names are Tim, Zip(They are boys) and Tess, which is the girl. The last kitten was stillborn. Stillborn is where a baby gets born died. The baby died in the womb of the mother. CopyCat has had not health problem relating to the cloning process. It took the scientist three tries to successfully clone CopyCat. Embryo Transplant: A developing embryo is removed from a pregnant animal at an early stage, before the embryo’s cells have had time to become specialised. The cells are separated, grown for a while in a laboratory, and then transplanted into host mothers. When the offspring are born, they are identical to each other, but they are not identical to their host mothers, because they contain different genetic information .Adult cell cloning: In this process the nucleus for an egg cell is thrown out and a new one is put in. Then the scientist shock the egg so it starts to split. After that the egg is transferred to a host mother. Then in the host mother the baby is born. Dolly was the first animal to be cloned using this method.Honolulu Technique: The Honolulu technique was created by Dr. Teruhiko Wakayama at the University of Hawaii. In the Honolulu method, the nucleus is removed and put into another cell that does not have one. Then it is soaked in a chemical solution until it develops an embryo. When it has developed an embryo it is put into an surrogate mother. Conclusion: Scientists have experimented with reproductive and therapeutic cloning for decades. Ideas that were once far-fetched are coming to life. Cloning experiments are being conducted on organisms ranging in size and complexity from small clusters of cells to farm animals. Some applications of cloning are already being tested on humans.A review of the capabilities of reproductive and therapeutic cloning revealed that both methods have distinct benefits and disadvantages. When comparing these two cloning methods, it is concluded that therapeutic cloning is more beneficial for future medical applications, and is deserving of a higher concentration of governmental funding. The purpose of this scientific research is to make advancements that will improve the quality of life. The capability of culturing stem cells using an organism’s own genetic material and later transplanting them into diseased tissue is extraordinary. Treatments in humans using blood and bone stem cell transplants have already been successful. This contributes to optimism that therapeutic cloning will help overcome other human diseases. Even though there are risks, cloning would give people suffering from disease a chance for recovery, where there was none.Along with the endorsement of therapeutic cloning comes approval to use human embryonic cells for stem cell research. Despite objections based on ethics and morals, the potential benefits of this type of research cannot be overlooked. Research requires scientific testing of various ideas in order to acquire new knowledge. Experimentation involves many failed attempts before any success is achieved. This same logic applies to cloning. That is why an immense number of embryos must be used before any new breakthrough is discovered. Unfortunately, many embryos must be sacrificed in order for scientists to reach the next level of knowledge, which will then be the stepping stone for future research and experimentation. With the discovery by Yamanaka in 2006 that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent, it is possible that use of human embryonic cells will end, and the moral dilemma will be eliminated.

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