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Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) ranging codes have cross-correlation peaks that can potentially cause false acquisition (Van Dierendonck et al. 1999). Crosscorrelation can lead to tracking errors, C/N0 degradation and finally, measurement errors (Van Dierendonck et al. 1992; Braasch and van Dierendonck 1999; Misra and Enge 2006). The probability of such errors is higher when the signals are received with zero or small relative Doppler offset. This situation is called a Doppler collision (Lestarquit

et al. 2009).

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Lestarquit and Collet (2000) first described the potential multipath-like error due to Doppler collision and its impact on tracking WAAS satellites. The magnitude of the Doppler collision error is determined by several factors such as the cross-correlation function, the relative code delay and parameters such as the relative signal strength, relative carrier phase, and data bit sign (Nouvel et al. 2007, 2008). Further research has been done to determine the magnitude of Doppler collision error and its impact on pseudorange observations (Balaei and Akos 2009, 2011; Lestarquit and Nouvel 2012). Unlike multipath

in GEO satellites, where the pattern is repeated each sidereal day (Wang et al. 2015), the Doppler collision effect may or may not repeat depending on the factors listed above. No significant work has been done to simulate Doppler collision or to observe its repeatability and its impact on the single

Point navigation solution. Although Doppler collision has been observed at two locations simultaneously (Balaei and Akos 2009, 2011), limited research is available assessing the effect of Doppler collision on short baseline differential positioning. Boriskin et al. (2007) provides an RTK solution using SBAS observations; however, Doppler collision is not considered. Lestarquit and Malicorne (2003) apply carrier phase smoothing to Doppler collision affected observations resulting in biased smoothed pseudoranges. However, the impact of Doppler collision on carrier phase ambiguity resolution is not discussed. During Doppler collision,

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