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Given the importance of plant biodiversity in maintaining atmospheric gas balance and that it has a positive impact on global warming mitigation, as well as that it is an important source of disease treatment, conservation of biodiversity is a global responsibility. For this reason, local and international plant banks have been formed in addition to the establishment of nature reserves to provide suitable habitats for endangered animals and to announce governments’ actions to preserve the national biodiversity, as well as the actions taken by organization and individuals. The genetic diversity of plants is among the Earth’s most important resources for food and agriculture. People have used, developed and relied on the genetic resources of Opuntia ficus-indica for food and agricultural production. Plant breeders benefit from the genetic variations of wild O. ficus to improve and create new agricultural varieties and to generate desirable traits, which also reduce the incidence of unfavorable inherited traits. DNA fingerprinting can distinguish species rapidly using small amounts of DNA and, therefore, can assist in deducing reliable information about their phylogenetic relationships. Various approaches are available for DNA fingerprinting, such as RAPD analysis, which requires only a small amount of genomic DNA, can produce high levels of polymorphism and may facilitate more diversity in plants. Therefore, this study will be carried out to learn the genetic relatedness among the Opuntia ficus-indica that will be collected from different sites with different altitudes. Due to the evolution of multi-drug-resistant microorganisms, society is encountering serious public health problems. Thus, there is a growing interest in studies of alternative drugs for such antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. In regard to this approach, an in vitro antimicrobial activity that studied some extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi will be examined. In addition, Opuntia ficus-indica can grow in a wide range of climatic, topographical and soil conditions, which can affect its chemical composition. Therefore, this study will also investigate the chemical compositions of the Opuntia ficus-indica samples using HPLC and GC-MS analysis.

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