modified organisms can be produced by gene cloning methods in which a native
gene is introduced and expresses in new organisms. The modified GM technology
has been developing for a while. The pros of GM crops are many and diverse. Some
of the advantage of this GM crops are herbicide tolerance and pest managements,
human health, and environmental benefits.
herbicide tolerance and pest management is one of the advantage of GMO crop
farming. The most widely adopted HT crops are glyphosate tolerant (Dill,
CaJabob, & Padgette), colloquially known as “Roundup Ready” crops.
Herbicide tolerant GM crops have provided farmers with operational benefits.
The main benefits associated with HT canola, for example, were easier and
better weed control. The development of GM HT canola
varieties has also been linked to incremental gains in weed control and canola
yield. The reduction of pesticide applications is a major direct benefit of GM
crop cultivation: reducing farmers’ exposure to chemicals and
lowering pesticide residues in food and feed crops, while also releasing less
chemicals into the environment and potentially increasing on-farm diversity in
insects and pollinators Additionally, according to the article improved pest
management can reduce the level of mycotoxins in food and feed crops (Wu, 2006). Insect resistance in GM crops has also
conferred by transferring the gene for toxin creation from the bacterium Bacillus
thuringiensis (Bt) into crops like maize. This toxin is naturally occurring
in Bt and is presently used as a traditional insecticide in agriculture,
including certified organic agriculture, and is considered safe to use on food
and feed crops (Roh, Choi, Li, Jin, & Je, 2007). GM crops that produce this toxin have been
shown to require little or no additional pesticide application even when pest
pressure is high.
Secondly, GM crops have a positive
influence on human health by reducing exposure to insecticides. Most of the
public concern has been focused on human health and safety regarding the use
and consumption of the GMO foods. However, most of the studies are based on assumptions
rather than experiments but most of the crops that are commercialized pass
regulatory approval from the food and drug administrations. According to the article
malnutrition is very common in developing countries. Also, rice does not
contain sufficient quantities of all the important nutrients to prevent malnutrition.
However, GM crops supply more nutrition by a single food sources like rice.
there are also some environmental benefits. Reductions in pesticide use can
lead to a greater conservation of beneficial insects and help to protect another
non-target species. It has been claimed that growing Bt maize could help to
significantly reduce the use of chemical pesticides and lower the cost of
production to some extent. Some proponents of GM crops have argued that because
they increase productivity they facilitate more sustainable farming practices
and can lead to “greener” agriculture. for instance, according to the
article, GM crops require less energy investment in farming because the reduced
application of insecticide lowers energy input levels, thereby reducing the
carbon footprint. It has been suggested by other authors that the adoption of
GM crops may also have the potential to reduce inputs such as chemical
fertilizers and pesticides. Others note that higher crop yields facilitated by
GM crops could offset greenhouse gas emissions at scales like those attributed
to wind and solar energy. Greenhouse gas emissions from intensive agriculture
are also offset by the conservation of non-farmed lands.
conclusion, as mentioned above the adoption of GM herbicide tolerance crops has
accelerated the evolution of herbicide resistant weeds, which has created
additional operational challenges and costs for farmers. The GM crops
commercialized to date have all been deregulated and deemed to be safe to the
environment and safe in terms of human health by competent authorities around
the world, including the Food Safety Association. However, in my opinion we
need more experiments to decrease allergens reactions. We also need to focus on
the disadvantage of the GM crops.