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For these reasons, several
conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, this a complicated area in which a number of
critical factors that are underlying employee performance.

 Legitimate power is dependent on discernment
and reality. It is based on a reality that an individual holds a particular
position in a business – it is also based on the fact that the employees
believe that the leaders have full control over him/her (Gbadamusi, 1996).
Reward power includes the utilisation of rewards and is where the managers
present their employees with some sort of reward to acknowledge their
accomplishments, or when their actions have surpassed their leader’s
expectations – these rewards can be tangible or intangible. Some examples of
these rewards include pay rises, bonuses, discounts, promotions, more duties
and so on. Coercive power is the direct opposite to reward power. This form of
powers gives the employees the idea that the leader has the strength to punish
or provide those employees who don’t comply with the mandates with consequences.
Expert power enables a manager to influence their employees behaviours through
their specialist knowledge, background experience or aptitudes that relate to
the work that the subordinates do. Being an expert gives the employee the
impression that the leaders know exactly what they are doing and that they can
provide their representatives with the right strides in which they can end up
noticeably fruitful themselves. Referent Power (personal power) is control over
a person or a group of devotees, based on credentials with profound respect/ regard
for the leader. Referent Power is one of the “five bases of social power” (Raven,
1958). This form of power alludes to the leader ability to impact a follower due
to the adherents faithfulness, respect, love or a desire to gain endorsement. Moreover,
referent power is picked up by a leader who has strong interpersonal skills. An
example of referent power is Stephen Fry. He is an appropriate example because his
fanbase consists of more than 7 million followers. All of these individuals highly
respect him and want to be aware of his wellbeing.

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On the other hand, within
every business, the impact that the leaders have on their employees will be
solely dependent on the type of power that the leader possesses. “Power is the
capacity to influence” (Okafor, 1981, Leadership Beliefs and Organisational
Effectiveness). In reference to Okafor’s investigation, he suggested that there
are five different forms of power – legitimate power, reward power, coercive power,
export power and referent power. Power can be defined as a managers ability to
influence others. Legitimate power (positional power) is based on authority, it
is the sort of power that managers/leaders have within an organisation because
of the status of their position. For example – the manager of Apple has certain
powers because of the office he holds in the business.

Furthermore, laissez-faire is
straightforwardly inverse to autocratic leadership. Normally, there is a single
individual making independent decisions for an organisation, however, this
particular style of leadership is where the managers allow their employees to
make all of the appropriate decisions by themselves. The topic of trusting one
another is majorly important when it comes too laissez-faire leaders. An
example of a laissez-faire leader was Steve Jobs. He was recognised for giving
his workers directions about how he needed things to be.

“A leader is one who sees more
than others see, who sees farther than others see, and who sees before others
see” (Leroy Eimes). Paternalistic leadership is where the leader behaves as a
parent or a father figure towards their employees, the leader is mainly
responsible of taking care of their workers needs. This leadership style is by
and large used to acculturate and admonish the working environment. It has been
said that paternalistic leadership assumes a vital part in organisational
performance. It is exceptionally fundamental that the employees feel motivated
at their workplace, this is because satisfied employees can prompt expanded
efficiency and enable an association to accomplish more elevated amounts of

 In addition to this, democratic leadership is
where leaders support criticism and gain input from their colleagues, however,
the duty of settling on a ultimate choice rests with the participative leader.
This kind of authority boots employee morale due to the fact that the employees
are able to make contributions to the decision-making process. When an
organisation needs to make improvements within the association, this style of
leadership enables representatives to acknowledge changes effectively as they
play a role in the process. Democratic leadership is claimed “to be one of the
earliest form of leadership in comparison to all of the other leadership
styles” (Akpala, 2010).

An autocratic leadership style
is where leaders settle on decisions in light of their own thoughts/decisions
and they rarely give their employees the opportunity to give their input.
Authoritarian leadership is generally utilised where the nature of work is
encompassed by rapid decision making. The autocratic approach is mainly
valuable when it comes too unpractised or unmotivated workers as these individuals
may need to be given requests until they can carry out the job role themselves
– considering that those representatives who are substantially more innovative
and are capable of working despise this leadership style (Lewin, 1939). Autocratic
leadership affects

 A few distinctive leadership styles exist
within a business, each of them have diverse preferences and drawbacks yet,
they all influence organisational performance. Leadership styles can likewise
influence communication and efficiency levels within a business which can
debilitate the working relationships between the managers and their employees –
this could then adversely affect the business itself and, it will also affect
the overall quality of organisational performance in the long haul. This will
diminish the proficiency of the business prompting a reduction in benefit and
income. There are a wide range of leadership styles which include autocratic
(authoritarian), paternalistic, democratic (participative) and laissez-faire.

Leaders play a critical part
in accomplishing organisational performance, this can either be ascribed in a
positive or negative way, Leadership is characterised as “lifting a person’s vision to high sights, the raising of a person’s
performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its
normal limitations” (Drucker, 2005). Leadership involves the process of
motivating subordinates with the goal for them to work towards an objective. It
is vital that leaders possess the correct combination of skills that empower
the people surrounding them to take after their course. Organisational
performance is the way in which employees guarantee that the greater part of
their organisations assets are being utilised accurately in the advancement of
accompanying business goals. Previous research studies suggest that the part
that leadership plays in increasing organisational performance is varied.
However, different examinations propose that leadership has real significance
for an association to accomplish high quality organisational performance (Katz
and Khan 1978, Peterson, Smith, Martorana and Owens 2003). Nevertheless,
comparative studies (Pfeffer 1977) suggest
that leadership isn’t important in achieving organisational performance. The
motivation behind this essay is to clarify the connection amongst leadership
and organisational performance.

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