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First CrusadeFrom the year 1095 till the years 1291 in an area called Jerusalem a bunch of “Holly wars” took place. It all started when the Seljuk Turks (who were Muslims) started to invade the Byzantine empire. So Alexius I Comnenus the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire asked Pope Urban II to help defeat the invading Turks. Pope Urban II took the opportunity to unite the Christian Kingdom to work together instead of fighting among themselves, become allies with the Catholic Byzantine empire and also take back Jerusalem from the Muslims. So on November 27th, 1095 Pope Urban II called for the first of many Crusades. Around June of 1099, the first Crusade came to an end. The Crusaders took over Jerusalem and set up Crusader states around Jerusalem.Second Crusade In 1144 the Muslims took over one of the Crusader states, Edessa. The Western Europeans were shocked by this and they responded with Pope Eugenius III calling for the second Crusades in 1147. So the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and King Louis VII of France launched the second Crusades too take back Edessa from the Muslims. But the Crusade was a failure because the Muslims were much more organized than the Christians and defeated the Christian armies before they even made it into Edessa. the second Crusade ended in 1149 only 2 years after it started.Third Crusade In the year 1183 Saladin led a Muslim army and took over Jerusalem in the battle of Hattin. So German emperor Frederick I, King Richard I of England, and King Philip II of France and Henry II of England swore Crusader vows and joined together to fight back the Muslims. Henry II died before he left for battle, Frederick drowned in a river, Philip II went home after taking over Acre with Richard II. Only Richard II fought in the last battle against the Muslims in Jerusalem. Richard II managed to recover the Palestinian coastline but still lost in Jerusalem. But Richard II made a deal with Saladin to let Christians pilgrimage into Jerusalem in return Christians wouldn’t attack Jerusalem. This deal ended the third Crusade in 1192.Fourth Crusade In the year 1202 Pope Innocent II called for the fourth Crusade because they failed to recapture Jerusalem in the third Crusade. Led by Fulk of Neuilly French, a bunch of French Christians took Crusader vows and started their mission to capture Jerusalem by attacking the Muslims at their base, Egypt. But when they got to Venice where they were going to take ships to Egypt but they had not enough Crusader or money to cross the ocean by ships. So they helped a Greek refuge called Alexius put his father, Isaac, to become the Byzantine ruler, in return Alexius would help the Crusaders with their mission as the ruler of Byzantine. After the Crusader succeeded putting Isaac as king of Byzantine and Alexius as co-emperor. But Alexius didn’t fulfill his promise to the Crusaders so the Crusaders took over Constantinople and put Count Baldwin of Flander in charge of Constantinople. After that happened the Crusaders forgotten their original goal and called the fourth Crusade off in 1204.Children’s Crusade In 1212 Stephen of Cloyes a French peasant led an army of kids to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims. Thinking that God will help them in their journey to Jerusalem without the Pope telling them to and without the aid of Christian knights. Most of the Children’s died of hunger or just froze to death. The ones that survived were sent to slavery and this ended the Children’s Crusade slowly without a clear date.Fifth CrusadeIn 1217 King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, and John of Brienne under the order of Pope Innocent II before his death led the fifth Crusade. In order to capture Palestine from the Muslims, they attacked in both land and sea. But they only managed to capture the port of Damietta before forced to surrender to Muslim defenders led by Saladin’s nephew, Al-Malik al-Kamil, in 1221. But they made a truce with the Muslims in which giving the port of Damietta back to the Muslims for a truce. Once again the truce ended the war in 1221.Sixth Crusade In 1229 Emperor Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire later gave some of the important Christian ports in a trade with al-Kamil for Jerusalem. This Crusade ended in 1229 with the success of the trade.Seventh Crusade In 1244 the Muslims broke the truce and took back Jerusalem from the Christians. Because the Muslims broke the truce King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) lead the seventh Crusade to attack Muslim forces in the Cypress, Egypt in 1245. The Muslims captured  King Louis IX most of his army in a battle in 1250. King Louis IX and his army were freed for Damietta and a handsome and King Louis was freed to fight in the Eighth Crusade. This Crusade ended without a clear date.Eighth Crusade In 1270 King Louis IX of France started the eighth Crusade over the concern of the fall of the Crusader states. Louis IX wanted to reconquer Jerusalem by converting people in Tunisia into Christians and then marching over into the Holy lands. The army arrived in Tunisia in July 1270 and were treated terribly. Louis’ army was ailing due to the lack of clean water to drink and in August of 1270 Louis IX died from a plague. One day after, his brother Charles had arrived with reinforcements and supplies for the army. Full control of the army and the Crusade was handed over to Charles. On October of 1270, the Crusaders made an agreement with the Sultan to retreat, in exchange for free trade with the city and guaranteed residence for monks and priests in the area. 210,000 ounces of gold and a doubling of the tribute paid to the King of Sicily was also part of the deal but the gold and doubling was lots in a storm. So the Crusaders ended the Crusade and went home in 1272 thus ending the Eighth Crusade.Ninth Crusade Meanwhile, Crusader states fell one by one, Antioch in 1268. Prince Edward was crowned Edward I of England in August of 1274 and went to defend the remaining Crusader states in 1290 with fleets of warships from Venice and Aragon. In 1291, Muslims seized Acre, the last Crusader States and thus ending all the Crusades.Results In the end the Muslims took over Jerusalem and some of Christians trading ports. Catholics and Christians trusted each other less, the Jews also trusted Christians less.

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