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– Sport Psychology Assignment 01

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Number: 605848


Table of Contents
Sport Psychology



Applied Sport Psychology

Coleman Griffith is
believed to have pioneered the application of psychology within sports where
emphasis was placed on movement, behaviour and presentation (Portenga,
Aoyagi, Balague, Cohen, & Harmison, 2018).  Applied sport psychology may be defined as
recognition and comprehension of psychological generalisations and methods relevant
to sport and exercise, to intensify actions and advancements of athletes and physically
active members by educating those who play a direct and indirect role towards
the contestants (Williams & Krane, 2015). This is directed
towards professional assistance within the related field and attention is
largely placed on preparation, teamwork, communication abilities, in hand with neighbouring
factors, determining a positive outcome. 

It highlights aspects
of cognition, emotion, enjoyment and motivation etc. including diagnoses and
prevention of barriers between triumph and failure surrounding the domain (Portenga,
Aoyagi, Balague, Cohen, & Harmison, 2018).  Different
types of sports psychology issues have been reported such as anxiety,
low-elf-esteem, depression and substance abuse etc. A range of sports
psychology issues are given by the examination authority to delineate and
define them employing existing literature. 
To address the demands of one the following concerns ? doping and
sports, psychopathology in competitive athletes, or chocking under pressure ? I
have selected   ‘doping and sports’ for
elaboration as it is very a common practice being used by athletes in the
modern sporting world.


and Sports

Doping involves the usage of a
foreign substance in an abnormal quantity with the motive of impacting the
outcome of performance.  This may be done
through gene doping (injecting the muscle to increase its muscle mass), blood
doping (increase in the density of erythrocytes to improve endurance) or drug
doping, by making use of injections or pills. Studies suggest that doping has
become widespread in popular sports founding its way into less recognised ones.
 Doping is used to enhance performance,
supply the increased amounts of nutrients that the body requires and manage the
psychological pressure that an athlete might feel before partaking in an event (Taware &
Bansode, 2016). 

According to Tawade and Bansode
(2016) the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) focuses on anti-doping rules and
regulations that are governed around the globe and the undertakings allow for
the movement of doping-free sports.  Athletes
that resort to recreational drugs fail to master concepts of proper nutrition,
regular exercise and intrapersonal drive which ultimately leads to a successful
completion of the given sport (Bowers & Paternoster, 2017).  The first case of drug overdose in sporting
was recorded in 1886, where Linton Redrenn died during a cycling competition.  Thereafter, a number of scandals have played
out, which gained large media coverage, where popular athletes were banned or
stripped of their titles when performance-enhancing drugs were found within
their system (Taware & Bansode, 2016).  Serious percussions and penalties are evident
should laws and standards that govern sports be trespassed (Bowers &
Paternoster, 2017).
 Concentration is now placed on primary
prevention that includes educating minors in schools and the community
pertaining to the ethical and moral stance of substance abuse (Blank, et
al., 2015).

As parents play a major role in the
behavioural outcome of a child therefore, future endeavours will include
parental campaigns to provide information on doping and health (Blank, et
al., 2015).
a secondary prevention method, athletes are requested to provide urine samples
which will be divided in two separate containers for examinations, where the
second container is used to confirm of doping (Bowers & Paternoster, 2017;
Tawade & Bansode 2016).  Although
punishment may be used as a form to reduce doping instances in the future by
athletes, Bowers and Paternoster (2017) argue that a multidisciplinary approach
to the matter may be more beneficial e.g. honour and recognition for those
athletes who have never doped or shaming, which causes the athlete to regret
the decision of doping, this should be done by the athlete’s community where he
or she gained the recognition and respect, as it will have a greater impact on
the individual.  Once the reputation of
the party involved has been put on the line, a sense of ethical and moral evaluation
is re-established as well as consideration for fellow competitors is harnessed
in fair-play (Bowers & Paternoster, 2017). 

reasons surround the usage of illegal drugs in sports, that is, to enhance
stamina, increase momentum and provide quality performance.  To eliminate or diminish the role of illegal
drugs in sports, the athlete must resort to healthy lifestyle changes in the
context of ecological systems, with the assistance of professionals working in
the field i.e. positive relations, concentration, motivation and so forth.  Although further research is required to link
parental attitudes to children’s choices, parents play an effective role in
educating youngsters to counter the urges of doping thus, encouraging fair





Blank, C., leichtfried, V.,
Schaiter, R., Fürhapter, C., Müller, D., & Schobersberger, W. (2015).
Doping in sports: Knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior
athletes. Scandinavian Journal of medicine and science in sports, 25,
Bowers, L. D., & Paternoster, R. (2017). Inhibiting doping in
sports: deterrence is necessary, but not sufficient. Sport, Ethics and
Philosophy, 11(1), 132-151.
Portenga, S. T., Aoyagi, M. W., Balague, G., Cohen, A., & Harmison,
B. (2018). Defining the Practice of Sport and Performance Psychology.
Retrieved from APA Div. 47: Society for Sport, Exercise & Performance
Psychology Retrieved from:
Taware, G. B., & Bansode, D. G. (2016). Doping in sports. National
Journal of basic medical sciences, 6(2), 1-4.
Williams, M. J., & Krane, V. (2015). Applied sport Psychology:
Personal growth to peak performance (7th Ed.). New York: Mc Graw Hill.




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