issues are classic concerns in every aspect of human life. Every religions and
races put ethics as one of the most critical questions in daily life. And why
is that? Because without ethics, there in neither right or wrong in this world.
With that in mind, ethics do also plays an important role in research. Ethics
defines what is okay and what is not. Authentication, fabrication,
confidentiality, plagiarism, informed consent and many more are among
compulsory term when discussing ethics considerations in every single research
on earth. Those ethical issues inevitably will result whether the research will
remain as an academic product, or being thrown away as trash.
consent has a few different meanings, depends on what fields it is referred.
For example, a healthcare provider such as nurses or doctor needs the patient’s
consent prior to any treatment. The patient has the rights to be explained in
such detail what procedure the doctor is going to take, and the risks that
might appear after that particular procedure. Meanwhile, an employer may need
the consent from their employees before giving them any tasks. A researcher, on
the other hand, need the participants or subjects signing the consent form before
enrolling them into any clinical trial. The consent form, in the easiest way to
be understands, is created to ensure the subjects or participants to have ample
information about the following procedure to be joined and make the best,
Let us zoom
in and take a look in detail, how does informed consent in research using human
subject really work. For better understanding, take the four evergreen issues
regarding this topic – purposes of the research, risks, participant’s rights,
and confidentiality. The upmost issues should be revolving about the research’s
purposes. At the very beginning, the researchers who conduct the research must
have clear aims and how the research will be end. Next, the researcher must
adopt the best way to explain those visions unto the participants. Besides
that, among others things that should be clarified are the benefit of the
research to the community and mankind.
is the research’s risks. Risk, by definition, is having the possibility of
acquiring or losing something of worthy. Oxford English dictionary define risk
as exposure towards any harm, damage, or any form of unwanted situations, or a
circumstance involving such possibility. Some risks are well foreseen, while
some are unanticipated. In a research using human subjects, the risk could be
anything related to the participants. The risk could be in the form of
physical, health, emotional and also financial. The participants must fully comprehend
all the risks that they might be undergone pre-or post-research period. With
only that, the risk assessment and analysis could be done by participants prior
to signing the informed consent.
must also recognize and understand their rights as a participant. Those rights
act as the ultimate defender for the participants in the event of uprising
risky or unwanted situations. For example, the participants have the rights to
keep a copy of informed consent sign at the beginning of the research.
Furthermore, participants could demand that all the procedure to be written in
detail within the informed consent. Participants too, have the freedoms to
withdraw from the research (following the agreed withdrawal procedure of
research). Besides that, some real cases arose in the past, when the participants
are promised with certain amount of money as a bonus, but turn up with nothing
at all. With the rights, this should not be happening.
major concern in research using human subjects is about the confidentiality.
Usually, the participants have to fill in a lot of personnel information to
take part in a research. Names, address, age and identification card are the
most common information to be asked, and all of this is very sensitive
information. In some research might as well ask about the weight, height,
preferences and many more. Be it what kind information, researcher must have
the system to ensure all of them to be kept as private as possible. Revealing
any of those materials could break the trust and ethical principles in
To be the
best researcher, one should adopt the best ethical principles in their
research. Academician argued a lot in the past to arrange those best ethics to
be followed by the researcher. Vast type of protocol, guidelines or report have
been documented, even from the past (for example is The Belmont report) that
revolving around this area. Some of them have also been altered or improvised
accordingly. Apart from that, two major ethical principles and most crucial of
all times are HONESTY and RESPECT.
the moral attitudes that signify RIGHTEOUSNESS and POSITIVITY. There is a saying said “the best policy is
honesty”. Researcher who valued honesty in the research will indirectly become
a LOYAL and SINCERE person, as well as having a good sense of INTEGRITY.
Honesty too is a key role in promising the authentication of a research.
On the other hand, honesty is the absolute opposite of
any FALSIFICATION, FABRICATION and PLAGIARISM. Falsification in a research may
appear in the form of falsifying information, data or result. Meanwhile,
fabrication is the act of manipulating the data or information and interpreting
them in a wrong way. Plagiarism on the other hand, is the number one enemy in
generating a first-class research. As an honest researcher, all of these
deceitful behaviours could be avoided.
The second quality to be a researcher is by having
RESPECT. Respect is given to other person as a sign of admiration, consideration,
admiration and honour. Any research to be conducted will most likely involve a
lot of people or parties. Thus, each of them has the right to be respected. For
example, researches that being sponsored by a parties or companies have also
the authority regarding the research end result. Research partners earn the
right to be involved in all the research’s procedure and acknowledged as a
researcher too. Plus, a researcher give respect the participants by giving them
all the participants’ right. For example, the rights to withdraw from the
research following the agreed consent form.
Another issue that should concerning every researcher is
about respecting humanity. This is also including respecting the multi races,
ethnicity and religions surrounding the researcher’s environment. Some researchers
are not suitable to be carried out in certain places due to religious factors,
but could be done in some other places. For example, a research using cow as
subject might look inappropriate around Hindus-related community, but it is not
a big deal if conducted out of their range. To sum up, respect drives a
researcher to be a better researcher in the way of tolerating with others.