ESL teachers face challenges and constraints in using
resources (e.g., students’ home languages) to better communicate with
students and adjust their pedagogies, though they are sensitive to students’
Language learning, especially effective error correction,
relies on mediation from other individuals.
There is a growing research interest in autonomy in
language teaching and learning, yet the empirical knowledge is still limited.
The problem-oriented communication strategies help
students solve communication breakdowns. The goal-oriented communication
strategies are helpful as mediation to assist EFL students learning English.
In ESL education, collaboration correlates positively with
community development, language development, and students’ identity
Language socialization draws on sociocultural theory and
theories from other social science disciplines. Language researchers and
educators should understand the processes of language socialization, and how
it influences learners’ life and future.
Compared to other collective and supportive contexts that
help ESL students develop their language proficiency, schooling in the study,
which are full of alienation and isolations, prevent them from being engaged
in rich language practices.
In China, EFL students’ language learner strategies are largely
shaped by grade-getting goals, and are also influenced by their learning
experiences, cultural tasks, interactions with teachers, parents, and peers,
Students’ self-regulation development is closely related
to the social-cultural factors in the English-dominant context, which deeply
impact their semiotic resources.
Teachers use languaging and translanguaging as mediation
to develop and give feedback to students’ needs, and use students’ funds of
knowledge to enhance and increase their language learning opportunities.
Students’ writing processes develop well in linguistically
rich and resourceful environments, and they self-regulate their writing
abilities for higher goals than merely seeking good grades after they reach
Both ESL and FSL students use similar scaffolding strategies
in email tandem learning, with explicit feedback, face-giving strategies, and
instruction being the most widely used ones.
ESL students use different strategies, namely
brainstorming, use of home language, peer collaboration, funds of knowledge,
and humor, to help themselves improve in writing.