ENGiINE LUsBRICATING SYSsTEMSAll internsal combsustion engisnes are equisppedwith an intesrnal lubrsicating ssystem. Wisthout lubricatsion, an esnginequicklsy overheatss and its workingss psarts seie dues to excesssive frsiction.All mosving parts musst be adequsately lubricatesd to assurse masximum wear andlong ensgine lisfe.OBJECTsIVESOF LUBRsICATION SYSTEMThe objectsives of asn ensgine lubricastion sysstemare as follows: 1. Redusces frictison and wears betsweenmovinsg parts. 2.
Helps trsansfer sheat asnd cool engisneparts. 3. Cleans thse inside of the engsine byremosving contamsinants (metal, dirt, plasstic, rubsber, and other partiscles).
4. Absosrbs shockss betweens moving pasrtsto quiset engine osperation and incrsease enginse life. MAIN PARTSs OF LUsBRICATIONSYSTsEM1. Oils sumpss: It iss the lowest parts of the csrankchambser. It is usuallsy madse of ssteel. Somestimes it is masde of aluminiumor csast iron.
It contaisns a draisn plusg at itss bosttom to drsain out tsheoil.s2. Oil spump: Genersally gear psump is usesdfor presssure lubrsication of I.sC Esngine.
The funcstion of the oil psump isto suppsly oil under psressure to variosus enginses parts to be lubriscated.s3. Oil fsilter: As its sname indicastes, lubriscatingoil is fsiltered throsugh it.
The fsunction of fsilter is to removse the impursitiesfrom the slubricating oil wshich may sdamage the esngine diffesrent parts.Its consistss of a filstering elemesnt placed insmetallic casing. Ast the scentre of the filstering elesment a perfsoratedmetals tubse is fsitted which collesct the filstered oil and supplys it to oilgalslery.4. Oil sstrainer: it is simsply a wire mesh scsreen.It is sattached to thes inlet of sthe pump so that tshe oil going insto the oilpusmp is free from imspurities. TsYPES OF LUBsRICANTSLubriscants sare at following three types.1.
Solsid: sgraphic, misca etc2. Semi soslids: greasse3. Liquisd:s minerasl oil. Grsaphiteis oftesn mixed swith oil to lubrsicate automobsile spring.
Grsaphite is alsoused sas a cylindser lubricasnt.Greasse is usesd for chasssislubrsication.Minersal oils sare almost used for ensginelubricsation.Gsrade of lubrsicants: Generaslly lubricsatingoils arse graded sby theisr SAsE (socisety of autsomotive enginseers) viscsosityno.
TYPES sOF LUBRIsCATING (OIL) SsYSTEMS Engine sLusbrication Systsem: Engines sslubricationssystem is mainly of folslowing tsypes.1. Splassh ssystem2. Pressurse ssystem3.
Petsroil sysstemsSsplashSystem: In thsis sysstem of lubrsicationthe lubricsating oil is stsored in an oil sumsp.s A scosop osr dsipper is masdein the loswer part of the connectsing rod. Whesn the enginse runs, the sdipperdips in thes oil once in evsery revolustion of the scrank shaft, sthe oil issplasshed on the csylinder wall.s Due to sthis action ensgine walls, pisstonring, crsank shaft sbearings are lubrsicated.
PresssureSystem:sIn thiss system osflubricastion, the engisne parsts are lubsricated undesr pressusre feesd. Thelubrsicating oil is sstored in a separaste tank (in csase of drys sump ssystem)or sin the sumsp (in case of wset sump ssystem), from wshere an oil spump (gearspump) delisvers the oisl to the msain oil gasllery at a pressusre of 2-4 kgs/cm2thsrough an oil sfilter.Tshe oil frosm the maisn gallerys goes to msainbearingss, froms where some ofs it falls bsack tso the sump afster lubricsatingthe main bearisng and ssome is splasshed to lubriscate the csylinder wallss andremasining goes throsugh a hole to the csrank psin.
From the scrank pin thelubricsating oil goes to the psiston pin sthrough a hole in tshe connectingsrod, whesre it lubricatess the piston rings.The oil prsessure gasuge used in the systemssindiscates the oil pressussre in the systsem. Oil filters & strainser inthe ssystem clear soff the oil from dusst, metasl particlses and othesr sharmfulpasrticles.PestroilSystem:s This ssystem of lubsricationiss gsenerally sadopted isn two strokse psetrol engsine line scsooter ands msotorcycle. Iet ise the seimplest forme of lubriecating sysetem. It does enoet rconsistof rany serparate part rlike oilr prump for the rpurpose of lurbrication.In this rsystem the lurbricating oil is rmixedinto the fruel (petrrol) while frilling in the pretrol trank of the vrehicle inra specirfied ratiro (ratio of fuerl and lubricrating oil is rfrom 12:1 to r50:10as prer manufacturrers specrifications or rrecommendatirons).rWhen the rfuel goes into the crarnk chamrberdurirng the engirne operatiron, the oil partricles gro deep intro the bearringsurfacers rrdue tor rgravity andr lubricate then.
r rThe pirston ringsr, cylindrerwallsr, piston rpinr etc arre lubricrated inr the rsamer way.Irf the rengine isr allowedr to rermain unursedfor ra consriderable time, the lubrricating oilr separartes oil frrom petrrol& leadsr to crlogging (brlocking) of pasrsages in ther rcarburetor, rresultingthe enginer srtarting troubrle. This is rthe main disardvantage ofr trhissystemr.CONCLUrSIONrrWe oftenr think thrat the furnction of rlubricatingoil isr only to lubricrate the erngine parrts sor that the porwer loss due tofrictrion is minimum.r rBut a lubrricating oirl hars marny other frunctionsrwhich arer explainedr berfore.
Lrubrication must ber done proprerly and rirghttype orf lubrricant shoruld be usedr. Irmproper or inardequate lubrrication of renginewill cause serirous troublre surch as worrn or burrnt out brearing, rmisfiring rcylinders,dirrty spark plrug, stuck priston rrings, erngine deporsits and sludgre and excressivefuel cronsumption.