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Employee engagement is a wide
construct, it touches all functional activities of HRM. It is the level of
commitment of an employee towards the organization and its values.  Employee engagement is a strong predictor of
positive organizational performance. Employee engagement shows the relationship
between employer and employee compared with the earlier constructs such as, job
satisfaction, employee commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour.  

In the Present scenario of
Global competition, organisations have realized the importance of making their
employees feel fully connected to their organization and making them to be
passionate about their job. It has direct impact on productivity, employee
retention, financial results and customer satisfaction. An engaged employee is
aware of business context, and works with his colleagues to improve individual performance
for the benefit of self and the organization. Thus, it is a barometer and it determines
the association of a person with the organization. 

Engaged employees are physically,
emotionally and cognitively attached to their organization. Employees are highly
involved in their job with great enthusiasm for the success of their employer, will
go an extra mile beyond the employment contractual agreement.

Keywords: Employee
engagement, Employee commitment, Organizational citizenship behaviour, Job
satisfaction, HR Practices.


Employee engagement is
relatively a new term in HR literature and it became prominence from 2000
onwards. Melcrum Publishing (2005) found that from a global survey of over
1,000 communication and HR practitioners 74% began to formally focus on the
issue between 2000 and 2004. Employee Engagement is the extent to which
workforce commitment towards the organization, both emotionally and intellectually,
to accomplish the work, mission, and vision of the organization. Engagement can
be seen as a heightened level of ownership where each employee wants to do
whatever they can for the benefit of their internal and external customers, and
for the success of the organization as a whole.

The fast pace of
technological advancement, rising complexities of managing businesses,
pressures to become world class organizations and relative scarcity of people
with Critical skills have resulted in problems of attracting, retaining and
utilizing talent in most organizations globally. In the changed business
scenario, it is being increasingly realized that organizations can gain and
maintain competitive edge through people as creators of assets. It is precisely
assumed that, employee engagement is a way of managing people in organizations
because engaged employees are believed to deliver high quality/committed
service and they form work teams that produce high quality results.

Employees will feel
engaged when they find motivation and personal meaning in their work, get
positive interpersonal support and also operate in a work environment that is
efficient (Bernthal,2004; Seijits & Crim, 2006). Employee engagement helps to
increase the level of job satisfaction and employee retention. It maximizes
workforce productivity. It is essential for meeting corporate sales and
profitability objectives.

Employee Engagement is
the level of commitment and involvement an employee has toward his organization.
It is the positive attitude held by the employees towards the organizations and
its values.


Organizations are paying
more attention towards employee engagement and HR managers are increasingly
asked to play a role in the development of engagement strategies. The gap in
knowledge between the needs of organizations and the ability for professionals
to respond effectively is problematic for HRD scholars, researchers, and
practitioners as well as for the organizations that employ them. Organizations
need HRD professionals who have well-researched, effective, and meaningful
approaches to creating, building, and maintaining employee engagement, and
practitioners are looking to scholars and researchers for tools and techniques
that are well grounded. Looking back at how the concept has evolved would help
identify past and present states as well as provide a depth of understanding,
context, and insight. This historical perspective will help develop informed
strategies of practice as well as provide a solid foundation for future
researchers to build on.



The study aims at the following

To study about importance and elements of
employee engagement in the present scenario

To analyse the need of employee engagement

To examine the factors influencing
Employee Engagement

To propose a model for employee

To suggest methods for improving employee
engagement practices to improve the performance of employees.


study is based on the secondary data. The data was collected from Text books,
National and international journals and websites.


to Macey and Schneider (2008), Employee engagement is a desirable condition in
the organizations. It has an organizational purpose, and connotes involvement,
commitment, passion, enthusiasm and focused effort, so it has both attitudinal
and behavioural components.

and Leiter (1997) and Maslach et al. (2001) conceptualized engagement as
opposite or the positive antithesis to the three burnout dimensions:
exhaustion, cynicism, and sense of inefficacy. Schaufeli et al. (2002) provided
a third approach for employee engagement, asserting that job engagement and
burnout were independent states of mind and inversely related to each other.
They defined engagement as a positive and work-related state of mind, that is
characterized by dedication, and absorption. Dedication – is characterized by a
sense of enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. Absorption – it refers
to the state of being so completely concentrated and highly involved in work
that an employee feels time passes quickly and has difficulties detaching from
work (Schaufeli et al., 2002). Wellins and Concelman (2005)
suggested that engagement is “an amalgamation of commitment, loyalty,
productivity and ownership. He further said that employee engagement is the
illusive force that motivates employees to higher levels of performance.”

 A company can have the best reward system,
training and development, and human resource (HR) policies, but if people do
not feel good about themselves then neither can behavior change, nor training
be effective. Getting employees? commitment and loyalty is not easy. It is not
about giving to get, either.  Employees
are not stupid. They know when the conditions are true and when it is right to
give their all for the company. Thus, it is inferred that engagement is both
psychological and physical presence of employees in the organizations while
occupying different roles. Employee Engagement is also understood as emotional
and intellectual commitment to the organization (Shawand Fairpunt, 2005) and
also the amount of discretionary effort exhibited by employees in their job
(Frank et al.,2004). As per Robinson et al. (2006) Employee Engagement is “one
step up from commitment?. On the other hand, it can be deduced that employee
engagement is not a new thing rather a trend with different appearance or some
might call “old wine in a new bottle” Saks (2006). 

 From the above views of different researchers
and understanding in general, it can be concluded that employee engagement is a
psychological construct, although, in research literature it is not very
precise, rather commonly it is used to refer to both role performance and an
effective state. It is actually much deeper than simply an incentive program.
If management wants more performance from employees, then it becomes necessary
to understand how they are engaged with work environment, what factors are
influencing on employee engagement.

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