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of organizational politics and impression management on job performance











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Muhammad Nabeel ur Rahman


National College of Business Administration
& Economics

















The purpose of this research was to explore the interactive
effect of organizational politics and impression management on supervisor
ratings of employee performance. Study hypothesized that the negative
relationship between organizational politics and supervisor rated performance
is weaker among employees who are higher in impression management than among
those low in impression management. Data will be collected from a sample of 151
subordinates and their supervisors of the different government and private



An individual may engage in
political behaviors with the aim of positioning himself or herself as a
powerful and crucial person. Impression management has been set up to control
the relationship between government and various events, such as job
satisfaction, supervisor satisfaction, intent to turnover, and job stress. The
negativity association of an employee’s performance with high perceptions of
politics may be ascribable to the uncertainty inherent in a political
environment. If organizational behavior is not governed by a readable set of
patterns or expectations, it is dif?cult for employees to predict behavior of
fellow workers, directors, or the executive team. Recently, Ferris et al. (2002)
proposed that theory-based investigation into the relationship between
political behaviors (such as impression management), employee perceptions of
politics, and their joint in?uence on organizational outcomes represents a
crucial next step in organizational politics research. Adding to this shout,
several researchers have hinted that further study of the politics–outcome
relationship from a motivational perspective, such as expectancy theory, would
represent an important donation to the perceptual experiences of politics,
literature (Kacmar, Bozeman, Carlson, & Anthony, 1999; Witt, 1998). In that
respect are different aspects that cause environment, political in the
organization which affect the personal development of the employee. Organizations which are turned to be
political somehow are engaged in political activities with the aim to achieve
political goals, which improve political system, benefit the interests of their
members, like ,members organizing, campaign, labor unions. Work place politics is the use of power and social networking within an
organization to achieve changes that benefit the organization or individuals
within it. Both
individuals and groups may engage in office politics which can be highly destructive, as
people focus on personal gains at the expense of the organization.

that point is one more term in organizational politics used which is
organizational gossips. Organizational politics differs from organizational
gossip in that people participating in office politics do so with the aim of
gaining advantage, whereas gossip can be a purely social activity. Only these
two are slightly interrelated. Organizational gossip is often applied by an
individual to put themselves at a level where they can manipulate the flow of
data, and thus gain maximum advantage. Both can cause one to doubt the
intentions of co-workers, which produces a hostile workplace environment.
Office politics also refer to the way co-workers act among each other. Employee
interaction holds the potential to be either positive or negative. Manipulation can be present in any
relationship where one or more of the parties involved uses indirect means to
accomplish their ends. In the workplace, where resources are limited,
individuals often have an incentive to reach their ends at the disbursement of
their fellows.

            One does not cause to be consciously cunning
or deviously political to end up playing organizational politics. Political
behavior is a fairly natural response to the tensions created between
individuals and their organizations. The setting of bud­gets and work
standards, the day-to-day supervision and control of work, as well as the
pursuit of opportunity and career, are often charac­terized by sophisticated
forms of gamesmanship. Consider, for example, the positions that reveal the
craft with which factory workers are able to hold their pace of workplace and
the level of salary, even when under the close eye of their supervisors or of
efficiency experts trying to discover ways of increasing productivity. The
workers know that to preserve their offices they have to ascertain ways of
circumventing the system, and do so with outstanding science and cleverness.


Literature Review

Few studies have examined
issues related to Organizational Politics in the public sector. At first glance
several studies seem to have done so, but in fact they were directed primarily
at universities (e.g., Christiansen, Villanova, & Mikulay, 1997; Ferris et
al., 1996a, 1996b; Welsh & Slusher, 1986), or they used mixed samples of
private and semipublic agencies like hospitals and government-owned industries
(e.g., Drory, 1993; Ferris & Kacmar, 1992; Kumar & Ghadially, 1989). Besides,
most studies of OP refer to the North American private sector (e.g., Bozeman et
al., 1996; Cropanzano et al., 1997; Hochwarter, Witt, & Kacmar, 1997;
Wayne, Liden, Graf, & Ferris, 1997). . With the exception of that of Parker et al. (1995)
no study has tested the issue of perceived organizational politics on
impression management among government sector employees who answer the citizens
(e.g., governmental agencies or local municipalities). With the exception of
that of Parker et al. (1995). Patterns of employment, occupation, and service
in public organization substantially differ from those private or service
public systems. In most countries wages of public employees are lower than
those of private sector employees, promotion is slower, politics are high, and
rewards are generally linked to influence outcomes (Rainey, 1991)

Employees who engage in
impression management endeavor to regulate how others perceive them (Rosenfeld,
Giacalone, & Riordan, 1995; Schlenker, 1980). Impression management may
assume many shapes. For example, Jones and Pittman (1982) identi?ed ?ve main
categories of impression management behaviors: intimidation, ingratiation,
self-promotion, exempli?cation, and prayer. Impression management is a speci?c
type of political behavior intended to persuade an audience to see the actor in
a special way (Schlenker, 1980). In highly political organizations, rewards are
not necessarily related to work performance (Kacmar & Ferris, 1991), but
may instead be tied to relationships, power, and other less objective factors. Kacmar
et al. (1999) measured performance as a self- rated evaluation, and Witt (1998)
examined employee performance as rated by supervisors. Consistent with an
expectancy theory perspective, both found evidence for a negative relationship between
politics and public presentation. It is understandable that past, researchers
have treated political, organizational climates as a primary negative factor in
organizational functioning (Ferris et al., 2002; Liden & Mitchell, 1988). In
fact, perceptions of politics have been establish to cause a negative in?uence
on a act of organizational outcomes, including job anxiety (Cropanzano et al.,
1997; Kacmar et al., 1999; Valle & Perrewe ´, 2000), job involvement
(Cropanzano et al., 1997), job satisfaction (Ferris & Kacmar, 1992; Nye
& Witt, 1993; Valle & Perrewe ´, 2000), intent to turnover (Cropanzano
et al., 1997; Kacmar et al., 1999; Maslyn & Fedor, 1998), actual turnover
(Witt, 1999), and employee performance (Kacmar et al., 1999; Witt, 1998).


Employee Performance

Employee performance is the
overall performance of the employee which his seniors evaluate. To achieve strong employee performance,
managers conduct employee performance assessments, implement training and
development plans, and determine when to promote and reassign employees. Employees
may have participated in a performance estimate. A performance appraisal, also
named a performance critique. The performance review, generally looks back at
an employee’s performance over the past year and involves putting new plans and
destinations for the year in advance. When you have a new job, you will want to
be sure to possess a clear discernment of the performance standards of your
stance to ward off any surprises when you seat down for your first performance
review. It’s always a safe idea to devise for a performance review by assessing
your own job performance ahead of fourth dimension. Your ability to perform effectively
in your job necessitates that you experience and understand a complete and up-to-date
job description for your attitude, and that you realize the task performance
demands and standards that you are required to play. Your supervisor should
review your business description and performance requirements with you. Sometimes
an employee’s performance will not be coherent with the demands of the
situation. If this takes place, and normal coaching, counseling and/or training
do not bring performance to an satisfactory degree.

lecture to your supervisor if you are unsure of the work that you are
anticipated to execute or the standards you are required to take on in order to
reach a fuller discernment of his or her prospects. If there are things you
believe you need help with to be successful, discuss them with your supervisor.
These could be instructions, preparation, support/cooperation from coworkers,
and so on You and your supervisor should discuss your work and address any
issues that may be affecting your job performance. If you are having challenges
in your work that you cannot solve on your own, seek your supervisor’s feedback
and help. Depending on your career goals, discuss opportunities to enhance or
extend skills.

Impression Management

According to Sinha (2009),
“Impression management is an active self-presentation of a person aiming
to enhance his image in the eyes of others” A symbolic interaction
theorist, Erving Goffman, coined the term impression management in 1959 and from
then on, sociologists and theorists have been adding insight and importance to
the concept. According to Newman (2009), impression management is an “act
presenting a friendly public image of oneself so that others will form positive
judgments”. Impression management is a primal and universal process that
requires a number of influential elements.

In sociology and social
psychology, impression management is a goal-directed conscious or unconscious
process in which people try to influence the perceptions of other people close
to a person, object or event; they exercise so by modulating and manipulating
information in social interaction. Impression management is the way people act upon how others
think about something else, usually themselves. People commonly manage this
either to acquire something they require from others or to demonstrate an
independent individuality. There are various different means of doing this,
which include things like manipulating the stream of information in a
relationship, mimicking others, and use of body language. When trying to
influence how they are seen by others, people generally use impression
management in one of three ways: authentically, ideally, or tactically. A
person’s authentic persona reflects the way he sees himself,
while the ideal persona is the way that he wishes he was. The tactical persona is used to get to a certain end, and
is often created out of what other people want or expect the person to be. Impression
management theory says that any individual or system must build and maintain
impressions that are congruent with the perceptions they want to communicate to
their stakeholders.


a-      Social Implications

Thither are a mixture of social
implications within impression management, but not all of the societal
implications are positive. Some of the repercussions are negative and can even
be damaging to the person responsible for the implementation of impression
management tactics. Impression
management is a concept to be considered really badly. It delivers the power
and influence to make a favorable public impression of a special individual. Impression
management can be comprehended in a mixture of dissimilar ways and because of
that, there are many different designs and functions related to effect


b-     Cultural Implications

People are sensitive to how they are
viewed by others and employ many forms of impression management to compel
others to respond to them in the ways they like” (Giddens, 2005). An instance
of this concept is easily illustrated through cultural differences. Different
cultures have diverse thoughts and views on what is considered beautiful or
attractive. For example, American’s tend to find tan skin attractive, but in
Indonesian culture, pale skin is more worthy. British
is inclined to choose light or blonde hair while Philippian’s generally favor
darker hair colors. Russians like people with green eyes, but in Pakistan,
people like those who have dark eyes. Whatever the combination of tones is
considered attractive may be, in that respect are always ways to imitate them.  This case shows the importance of
impression management and the great lengths people go to in order to control
how people perceive them. A person who is in a leadership position strives to
be respected and in society to check and sustain the effect; the person assumes
a decent suit, carries a briefcase, and works in a professional way. The
professional clothing and the dignified manner in which the person carries him
or herself, plays a big part in the impression management process. This
illustration can also be adapted for a cultural scenario. The clothing people
choose to wear says a great deal about the person and the culture they
represent. Mostly in America female employees wear short skirts with the bear
ankle but in Pakistan female employees prefer to wear Shilwar Kameez and cover
her head. Similarly, when principle or teacher switches his school or college
in Korea, all of the teachers from the school he or she is leaving accompany
him to the new school. This drill is performed out of respect and is viewed as
a culturally significant protocol. But it does not take place in America. All
of the teachers from the school he or she is leaving accompany him to the new
school. This example is a variety of impression management because in Korea,
this drill is practiced out of respect and is viewed as a culturally
significant protocol.


c-      Spiritual

Impression management can also be
exemplified through spiritual implications. Just as people desire to fit in
with their social and cultural groups, people aspire to fit in with their
spiritual groups as well. This concept can be manifested through the procedure
of changing one’s personality and actions in order to be admitted by a
spiritual group. Masses employed to run
to the mosque and offer prayers just to show others and try to put nice
impressions on others. Today, more and more people are attempting to
show that they are more honest and more spiritual than their neighbors. Multitude
can be so despairing to be accepted spiritually, that they are willing to
create an alternate and more spiritual role.

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