Earth’s crust contains at least 5% of iron. Hence it is
naturally found in groundwater in various forms. Drinking water iron is not
harmful to humans but higher concentration causes health issues, the red colour of water, bad odour, bad taste,
staining of laundry, plumbing fixtures and clogging of pipes.
the present work, low-cost agricultural waste
adsorbent, banana plant leaf biochar for the
removal of iron in groundwater by the batch
study is examined under laboratory conditions. The influence of various
parameters like contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and initial concentration of
adsorbate are studied. A large number of
experiments have been carried in the laboratory. In this study, adsorbate concentration is varied from
1.5 to 3.0 mg/l. As the adsorbent dosage
increased the removal efficiency also increased and optimum removal was
obtained at 5 mg and no substantial increase
was observed at a higher dosage. It has
been observed that the optimum removal occurs at pH 6. The optimum removal of
iron was obtained at a contact time of 30 min. The optimum removal efficiency
was found to be 96.67%.
is a metal found naturally in water. It ranks fourth among the most abundant
elements on earth, while in earth’s crust, it ranks second (Dordrecht, 1993).
It is found in large quantities in rocks and soil systems around the world. It
is a vital mineral nutrient, which plays role in the maintenance of energy
metabolism. It is an important element in haemoglobin, myoglobin as well as in
several types of enzymes. Low levels of iron in the body may cause iron
deficiency, anaemia, fatigue and increased susceptibility to different
infections (Green et al., 1968). Water bodies receive iron either through
geogenic sources or via dumping of domestic waste and industrial
effluents (Khatri and Tyagi
2015). The sources of iron in surface water are mainly
pollution from iron and steel industries, mining and metal corrosion (Jusoh et al., 2005).
Apart from surface water, iron is also present in groundwater. The major reason
behind the presence of iron in groundwater is due to leaching from iron-bearing
rocks and minerals (Tekerlekopoulou et
al., 2013 ). The concentration of iron in surface
and groundwater varies from 3 to 4 mg/L to 15 mg/L (Ellis et al., 2000).
Its concentration in the groundwater of West Bengal, India was in the range of
2–10 mg/L. Concentrations of iron up to 6 mg/L have been reported in
the Ganga river near the Fazalpur industrial area in Moradabad district of Uttar
Pradesh, India (Kumar et al., 2017).
The groundwater in Assam, the eastern state of India is highly contaminated
with elevated levels of iron. However, the permissible limit for drinking water
is 0.3 mg/L.
The presence of iron in groundwater is generally magnetite, sulphide
(pyrite), carbonates (siderite), silicates (pyroxenes, olivine etc), under
anaerobic conditions in the presence of reducing agents like organic matter and
hydrogen sulphide (sarojkumar Sharma, 2001).
Iron usually exists in natural
water in reduced soluble divalent ferrous FE (II) and oxidised trivalent ferric
FE (III) forms. In well-water, iron concentration underneath 0.3 mg/L were
portrayed as unnoticeable, while levels of 0.3– 3 mg/L were discovered
Iron is a basic supplement for
good wellbeing. It is a major component of haemoglobin, which is utilized to
transport oxygen and carbon dioxide into
the blood. Iron lack can increase lead absorption and toxicity; anybody with elevated blood lead levels should be tested for
The intake of large quantities of
iron can harm veins, cause bloody vomit’s/stool, and affects the liver and kidneys,
and may even cause death. Apart from these health-related
problems, several other issues of high iron content in water have been
reported. The metal imparts an odour, metallic taste and red colour to the
water at elevated concentrations (Das et al., 2007). It also causes stains and
streaks on laundry and plumbing fixtures.
higher concentrations of iron may also act as a substrate for certain bacteria.
The surfaces of pipes are the most suitable habitat for such bacteria. These
bacteria increase to such high population that they start clogging pipes and
reduce the flow rate of water in the pipeline. It becomes very difficult to remove
such bacterial colonies once they get established in the pipeline. Moreover, if
the pipeline is made up of iron, punctures and leakages are some of the common
problems reported (Michalakos et al., 1997 and Colvin et al., 2017). When these
bacteria die, bad odour and unpleasant taste are produced in the water.
Iron is the focus of attention for researchers because of its wide use in
manufacturing industries like galvanized pipe and metal finishing. The presence
of iron ions in the ground and industrial
wastewater becomes toxic at a high level and then may cause environmental and
human health problems (Yousaf MM et. al, 2015).