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DipIT02 –
Computing Mathematics & Digital Logic




Exercise – 1

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(Hons) Computer Science








General Introduction


also known as fourth generation communication technology is a wireless mobile
phone communication system. It is a development over older generation of
communication system like the 3G and 2G mobile communication technology. 4G offers
all the features provided by 3G and 4G and is five to seven times faster than
3G and provides speeds up to 150mbps. 4G is actually a development of 3G or an
advanced version of 3G but not actually a real 4G technology, which is, used
like a label over 3G development by the network companies to improve the
marketing of communications as well as to make the costumers feel that they are
getting the 4G network experience. The newly arising 4G mobile communication
systems are developed targeting to solve the remaining problems of 3G systems as
well as to provide a new services such as high-definition video transfer,
high-quality voice exchange, high-data-rate wireless channels transmission and



(, 2006) (SearchMobileComputing,
2010) (SUMAN, 2008)


Current Scenario

versions of 4G networks did not meet the standards set out by the ITU.
Generally, these networks set out for use until new versions of existing
technology are ready to be deployed, but were still advertised as being 4G. These
systems are based on new radio-interface models, use different frequency bands
than existing networks and are not backwards compatible with 3G solutions.
Currently 4G is in the full stage of development as there are two technologies that
have been provided to ITU as 4G applicants. LTE and WiMAX, the rolled out
versions of these technologies are nearly the True 4G communication system.
Both applicants, LTE and WiMAX are constantly working on developing True 4G service,
which will one day provide speeds exceeding 100mbps for downloading. However,
the recently gained changes in 4G service is removing of IP address
limitations, smooth transfer of data to the clients through challenging network
traffic as well as increase rate of data transfer to the clients. Nevertheless,
the service, which will provide the True 4G experience, which meets the
requirements provided by ITU, will not arrive until some several years and even
more in less developed countries or rural areas.

(whatsag, 2017)




4G often called, as the
fourth generation of evolution over earlier generations of network service is
the technology for mobile networks. It has the ability to transfer data to
various parts of the world with great Speed and Power more than 10 times that
of previous generation or successor 3G. it is developed in order to provide
faster and reliable networking experience to the client than that of 3G as well
as to replace it. Some of the major targeted field of improvement of 4G are receiving
large amount of information, data, images and so on as well as accessing of
information from anywhere at any time. (Stringfellow, 2017)


Technology Used


The 4G service has been developed on two main technologies,
which are LTE and WiMAX. These two technologies have been developed separately
by different technical organizations. IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers) is the developer of WiMAX whereas the development of LTE
is done by 3GPP. These both technologies are highly developed technology over
4G service. These main technologies are based on the use of antenna technology
to improve the performance. The service not only rely on these main
technologies as well as other hardware and wireless technologies. Some of them










2010) (Seminarsonly, 2016)


Working Mechanism


4G Network is IP (Internet Protocol)
based networking service. It uses various protocols in order to send and
receive data as well as voice data in the form of packets in order to reduce
time and increase efficiency. The mechanism developed over 4G from 3G is that
Wireless LANs are integrated into total mobile network but Circuit switching
capabilities are removed in 4G. The architecture of 4G network is more or less
similar to 3G architecture, as both of them are IP based and both of them use
methods like air interfaces to establish link between the mobile device and the
base station. Different technologies are based on different interface but all
the interference have the same method of coordinating network traffic and
acknowledging device when to send and receive data. However, the only thing they
differ is the way the complete their task. Various technologies of 4G like
WiMAX use interface similar to WIFI protocol to communicate whereas LTE use
OFDM and MIMO interfaces to communicate.

(Chandler, 2018)


Current Scenario in Nepal


Nepal is still new to 4G
technology as it has not been even over a year since it has was launched. The
first company to receive permission to launch 4G network in Nepal from the
Nepal Telecommunications Authority (NTA) was Nepal Telecom. Nepal Telecom launched
4G networks for postpaid users in Kathmandu and Pokhara city since January 1,
2017 and later made available to prepaid subscribers. Ncell also had been
applying for 4G licenses from a long time but recently, Ncell also got the license to launch 4G network in Nepal. Due to
unsolved dispute over Tax issues, NTA had hold license of Ncell to launch 4G
service in Nepal. NTA has decided to provide 4G license to Ncell under some
conditions. Ncell has to upgrade its all 3G networks
to 4G of all remote areas. It later launched
4G in Kathmandu from June 1. Beside Nepal Telecom and Ncell, various
other telecom operators like United Telecom Limited (UTL), Smart Telecom, Smart
cell, have also been applying for the license to NTA for approval to operate 4G

(indianexpress, 2017) (nepalitelecom,
2017) (Pranishs, 2017)










3.  Implementation


The main future implementation
over 4G service will be to replace current networking services and reduce its
problems. The objective of development of 4G is to provide smooth and various
multimedia services to the clients using common IP based interfaces in order to
make networking for efficient and cheaper as well as providing vast data
services like voice, video data’s and soon. Other implementation over 4G
services is to reduce the bandwidth consumption in the time of no use as well
as merge various data such as audio, video, applications and soon into a single
package while transferring. Various other field where 4G is to be implemented
are providing more faster communication, providing wide range of data’s,
maintaining secured online business, estimating accurate data prediction,
providing wider area coverage of services, providing detailed data and so on.


The above-mentioned
implementation plans must be accomplished in order to develop the communication
sector and can be achieved through numerous ways. Some of the ways to obtain
the plans are by expanding the service area of 4G network providers or
upgrading the 3G network to 4G network in order to replace the current
networking service, which will help in developing the future of communicating.
Other ways are like making the use of same IP interface on all the 4G
technologies, which will contribute in easier communication between different
network among the clients as well as wider data transmission. The problem of
continuous use of bandwidth can also be reduced by developing certain IP, which
will lessen the use of bandwidth in unwanted time such as updating current time
provided by the network, which then will reduce spending money of clients.
Using of common IP interface will also help in transmitting of various data in
the same package in the same time. Providing wider area coverage of 4G services
can also be solved by increasing the hardware resources of the networking
company like base stations, towers, gateways and soon on various different
rural and urban areas. Other problems such as providing wide range of data,
maintaining secured online business, estimating accurate data prediction, providing
detailed data can also be solved by developing different protocol for different



Therefore, 4G is one of the
most important communication service in today’s digital world as it helps to
communicate faster as well as convert the communication system into the next
level. Therefore, we should constantly develop the communication service so
that we can achieve even better communication system.

sum up, 4G services can be further developed to provide many other features and
facilities. Such as virtual presence, Tele-Medicine where it would help to
create a platform for doctors for remotely inspecting the health of the
patients, Virtual Navigation where it would provide the high-speed, which is
required to transmit the data necessary for visualization of structure of the
surrounding environment. Some other fields such as Geographical Positioning
Applications where 4G would provide the current location of the client to the
client anywhere and anytime, it would provide the people online education
service in an efficient and effective way and mostly in the field of multimedia
where 4G would help to deliver high data rates effectively with lower cost.

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