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Diabetes also known as diabetes mellitus is a
condition that occurs when the body glucose level in the blood is too high, as
a result the body is unable to control it. (1) Glucose is an
important energy source that comes from food that we consume. Insulin is made in the pancreases and is an important hormone that
controls the glucose levels in the blood. (2) . Diabetes occurs when the blood levels of
glucose are abnormally high because the body doesn’t release or use insulin
adequately. The number of people being diagnoses with diabetes have
exceedingly increased since 1980. (3). The international
diabetes federation (IDF) estimates that there are approximately 425 million adults have diabetes. It also estimated
that by 2045 this number will raise to 629 million (4). People that are being
diagnosed with diabetes is increasing worldwide, more particularly in low- and
middle-income countries. IDF also states that 1 in 2 (212 million) people with diabetes are undiagnosed.  People living with diabetes have a higher risk
of morbidity and mortality than the general population. People with diabetes have different type of symptoms
such as;

Extreme Fatigue

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Blurred vision which eventually
could lead to blindness

Numbness or tingling in the feet
or hands

Unexplained weight loss

Increased hunger

Increased urination

Increased thirst (5)



There is
different type of diabetes. The two-main type of diabetes is type 1 and type 2.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreases cannot produce any insulin. Type 1
diabetes is known as an autoimmune condition. The patient immune system attacks
its insulin producing cells called ?-cell in their pancreases (6). Although Type 1 diabetes occur at any age, it is
more commonly found in children and adolescence. In type 2 diabetes is known as
a metabolic disorder. The body is unable to use insulin effectively or it doesn’t
produce enough (6). Unlike type 1 diabetes there are various risk factors that
are associated with type 2 diabetes. It risks factors include; if the patient
is overweight, eats unhealthy, increases with ages, if a patient has high blood
pressure etc. (7).


There is no cure diabetes,
however there are numerous treatment to manage and control type 1 and type 2
diabetes. For type 1 diabetes insulin administer through an injection or through
an insulin pump therapy (8). The patient would also need to monitor the blood glucose
level every two to six months. (8). With type 2 diabetes, patients are advice
to have a change of lifestyle. This include change to their diet and carry out regular exercise.

Medication such as Metformin can be
used to control the blood glucose level. (9)

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