Diabetes also known as diabetes mellitus is acondition that occurs when the body glucose level in the blood is too high, asa result the body is unable to control it. (1) Glucose is animportant energy source that comes from food that we consume. Insulin is made in the pancreases and is an important hormone thatcontrols the glucose levels in the blood.
(2) . Diabetes occurs when the blood levels ofglucose are abnormally high because the body doesn’t release or use insulinadequately. The number of people being diagnoses with diabetes haveexceedingly increased since 1980. (3). The internationaldiabetes federation (IDF) estimates that there are approximately 425 million adults have diabetes. It also estimatedthat by 2045 this number will raise to 629 million (4). People that are beingdiagnosed with diabetes is increasing worldwide, more particularly in low- andmiddle-income countries. IDF also states that 1 in 2 (212 million) people with diabetes are undiagnosed.
People living with diabetes have a higher riskof morbidity and mortality than the general population. People with diabetes have different type of symptomssuch as; · Extreme Fatigue· Blurred vision which eventuallycould lead to blindness· Numbness or tingling in the feetor hands· Unexplained weight loss· Increased hunger · Increased urination · Increased thirst (5)` There isdifferent type of diabetes. The two-main type of diabetes is type 1 and type 2.Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreases cannot produce any insulin. Type 1diabetes is known as an autoimmune condition. The patient immune system attacksits insulin producing cells called ?-cell in their pancreases (6). Although Type 1 diabetes occur at any age, it ismore commonly found in children and adolescence. In type 2 diabetes is known asa metabolic disorder.
The body is unable to use insulin effectively or it doesn’tproduce enough (6). Unlike type 1 diabetes there are various risk factors thatare associated with type 2 diabetes. It risks factors include; if the patientis overweight, eats unhealthy, increases with ages, if a patient has high bloodpressure etc. (7).
There is no cure diabetes,however there are numerous treatment to manage and control type 1 and type 2diabetes. For type 1 diabetes insulin administer through an injection or throughan insulin pump therapy (8). The patient would also need to monitor the blood glucoselevel every two to six months. (8). With type 2 diabetes, patients are adviceto have a change of lifestyle. This include change to their diet and carry out regular exercise.
Medication such as Metformin can beused to control the blood glucose level. (9)