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permanent destruction of indigenous forest and woodlands. It is a major problem
all over the world particularly in high tropics. Recent and present
deforestation affects mainly tropical rain forest. As the amount of deforestation
increases, the biodiversity will decrease. Deforestation is caused by many
factors such as agriculture expansion, livestock ranching, logging,
infrastructure expansion and many more.


is normally log the plant for wood purpose. They will plant back the tree




is a huge store of carbon. It is a habitat for animal and many plants. It also
conserve soil nutrient. Prevent large scale erosion. It is an estatic value. It
is also an large gene pool of plant resources.


1)      Agricultural Expansion

 The major cause of deforestation is the conversion
of forests into agricultural plantations. 
Driving industrial-scale producers to clear forests are at an alarming
rate because of the increase in global demand for commodities, such as soybeans
and palm oil. In 2008 Guinness World Records, the largest producer of palm oil
in Indonesia, was named the “Fastest Forest Destroyer. The depleted soil is not
able to produce the same biodiversity it was once even when efforts are made to
replenish barren plantations.

2)      Livestock Ranching

contributor of deforestation is forest clearing for livestock ranching. A top
exporter of beef, has lost an area of forest that is 3/4 the size of Texas in
Brazil since 1990. The expanding this kind of deforestation, with the support
of governments such as in Brazil is because of strong global demand for beef.

3)      Logging

is also caused by logging, including illegal logging. Illegal logging
operations provide short-term income for people whom are living on less than $1
a day in Indonesia. People who depend on the forest, their livelihood will be
destroyed because of this kind of activity. One of the largest exporters of
timber is Indonesia. About 80% of timber is being exported illegally.  It between $10-15 billion dollars is
estimated that organized criminals will get from illegal logging per year.

4)      Infrastructure Expansion

 Deforestation can be caused by road
construction by providing an entryway to previously remote land. The road which
runs from Brazil to Peru, is a concern for conservationists as the 5,404-km
Interoceanic Highway road cuts a strip through the biodiverse Amazon
rainforest. Road expansions will lead to illegal logging and logging, without
permission from authorities the opportunists slash down trees. An influx of
settlers is then attracted when the land is cleared and disturbs the peace that
once reigned the small villages.


1)      Atmospheric

is the is the major contribution to global warming. Deforestation causes the
amount of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere. A layer forms in the
atmosphere that traps sun radiation as the amount of carbon dioxide increases
in the atmosphere. Global warming is caused because this radiation gets covered
to heat. It is also known as greenhouse effect. The tress are trigger by
deforestation to releases carbon store. Almost 1.5 billion tons of carbon is
release by tress each year by tropical deforestation as predicted by scientist.

2)      Biodiversity

removes or affect the bases of food web. Removes the habitat of many other
species. Causes local extinction of many other species. Causes local extinction
of many other species. The number of species or individuals decreases. Lower
biomass and productivity per hectare.

biodiversity decline as a result of deforestation. This causes many species of
living organisms are becoming extinct. The tropical rain forest contribute
eighty percent of the biodiversity and the forest support the habitat of wild
life. The environment and the biodiversity has degraded because of the removal
of tress. We are losing an average of 137 animal species, plants and insects
every day because of rainforest deforestation. To several endangered species,
there is a serious threat.  Almost 90% of
predicted extinctions is estimated will take place within next 40 years.

3)      Affects carbon and nitrogen cycle

less photosynthesis. Less carbon dioxide is removed and more is added into
atmosphere. Decomposing fungi live in association with the roots of tree.

4)      Soil

lost rate is very low in such forest. Two metric ton per square kilometre is
approximated. Tress cant bind to the soil together causes soil erosion as a
result of deforestation. Landslide may result if tress are removed from the
steep of slope.


5)      Hydrological

affects the water cycle in the nature. With the help of roots, trees pull up
ground water and then release the water vapour into the atmosphere. The water
vapour content in the atmosphere will be reduced if tress are reduced. This
will result in a very dry climate. This can also lead to soil erosion which
might lead to flood or landslide. The water quantity in soil, atmosphere, or on
the land can be influence by the absence of tress. This can affect the
ecological cycle.


1)      Use Recycled Items:

consumer can purchase many of recycled items, including shopping bags, toilet
paper, books, and notebook paper in today’s world. People should use recycled products.
They must  make a conscious effort not to
waste. This will defiantly reduce the demand for new raw material.

2)      Farming Practices:

 Deforestation can be stop by rotating crops by
those who plant crops at a farm. Use the same portion of land to plant different
crops. Soil fertility can be maintain by using this method. Hydroponics and
high-yield hybrid crops may be used by farmers which relies on a method of
growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil.

3)      Cut Back on Palm Oil:

of trees are cut down in order to generate the palm oil used in the production
of some shampoos, chocolates, and bread is increasing in Indonesia and
Malaysia. This causes the native orangutans to lose their habitat. You should limit
your consumption of products containing this type of oil and spread awareness.


1)      In-situ conservation

conservation of species in their natural habitats. The most appropriate way of
conserving biodiversity. It also conserving the area where population of
species exist naturally is an underlying condition for the conservation of


2)      Ex-situ conservation

preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural
habitats. It provides an “insurance policy” against extinction. Maintain
domesticated plants which cannot survive in mature unalded. Provide excellent
research opportunities on the components of biological divertical. Institutions
play s central role in public education and awareness raising by bringing
members of the public into contract with plants and animals they may not
normally come in contact with. Example of method, gene banks (seed banks,
sperm, ova banks, field banks), in vitro plant tissue and microbial culture
collections, captive breeding of animals and artificial propagation of plants
with possible reintroduction into world, collecting living organisms foe zoos,
aquarca and botanic gardens for research and public awareness.


Deforestation in Bolivia (refer appendix 10)

the left is June 17, 1975. The middle photo is July 10, 1992. On the right is
Aug. 1, 2000.  NASA describes this area as tropical dry forest, located
east of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

2)      Madagascar

is currently struggling to supply food, adequate sanitation and fresh water,
because of the rapidly increasing population. The country has lost ninety-five
percent of its rainforests, which has led to degradation of water resources,
desertification and soil loss.


In the past fifty years, ninety-eight percent of the
forested regions of the country are gone. Fourteen percent alone were lost
between 1990 and 2005. (refer appendix 11)


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