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Student: Rebecca Samuel

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Professor:  Kathleen


Institution: Stratford University


Date: 01/16/2018














Chapter 1

1. Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN)
is an independent nurse working impartially with advance medical knowledge in
pathophysiology, pharmacology, and physical assessment and expertise in their
respective area of specialization. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.4) A prime example
is the role of a Certified Nurse Practitioner (CNP) is to diagnose and treat
patient independently based on their advanced knowledge and certification in
their specialty.

2. American Nurses Association (ANA) is a
blueprint that outlines commitment and the standard practices that should be
consistency in the course of the nurses providing healthcare services to the
patients and the communities at large. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.2) A prime
example is the responsibilities of a nurse that include promoting, preventing,
protecting, and optimizing by providing medical assistance to the patient.

3. A caregiver is a healthcare professional
that offers much assistance to the patients which include managing disease,
symptoms, good health maintenance and healing process. (Patricia et al., 2017,
p.4) Examples of caregiver roles and responsibilities include counseling the
patients to ensure their well-being and those are facing challenges advise them
accordingly on what they need to do to overcome to regain their good health

4. Certified Nurse-Midwife (CNM) is a
health profession certified by the American College of Nurse-Midwives under the
category of APRN whose main duties and training is helping women during
childbirth that is midwifery. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.4) A good example of
Midwifery roles includes activities such as care for women during pregnancy,
pain, childbirth and the care of the newborn babies.

5. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
(CRNA) is an advanced practice registered nurse with deeper knowledge of
anesthesia as a nurse. The qualification and the requirement for interested
persons is at least one year in intensive care experience. (Patricia et al.,
2017, p.4)  Example of a role by nurse
anesthetists is a carrying out surgical anesthesia as per the directive of the
anesthesiologist. An anesthesiologist is a specialist in surgical anesthesia.

6. Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) is an
expert nurse in their respective area of specialization under APRN. Clinician
choice in the area of specialization depends on some considerations such as
setting, ailment, type of care or type of problem. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.4)
 For example a pediatric nurse only works
with children and adolescent because that they area of specialty                  .

7. Code of ethics is professional ideals
of the right and proper standards defining principles to be used in the process
of assisting patients. In some cases, professional apply their values and
ethics that facilitates their service delivery. But the essential thing lies
with the nurse understanding clearly what their roles entail and thus
incorporates their values and ethics to guide them significantly in regards to
their specialty in nursing. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.3) For example, the
publication; The Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements nursing
ought to be of high quality based on ethical concerns.

8. Continuing education acknowledges the
positive impacts of furthering education as it equips a nurse with latest
research and practice developments. The advantages to a nurse in furthering
their studies include acquiring new skills and helps in the decision-making
process concerning the area of specialization. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.10)  A prime example is a program for caring for
older adults with dementia offered by a university and a program on safe
medication offered by a hospital.

9. In-service education means an
institution puts into place programs upon which professionals employed by the
institution have a chance to undergo training in those programs. In most cases,
these training are technologically based on attaining the required competency. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.10) A good example is how to administer the current safety
syringes correctly. 

10. A nurse administrator is in charge of
the patient care and specific nursing services delivery in a healthcare
facility. Mostly, all the nurse administrators were once clinical care
coordinators. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.5)  Also, nursing entails other managerial posts
such as nurse manager who assumes the position based on their experience and
education level tasked with the mandate of patient care in a certain area.

11. A nurse
educator is members of the nursing program providing an educational lead on
practical and theoretical knowledge in nursing mainly in nursing schools, staff
departments of healthcare agencies, and patient education departments. A good
example of nurse educator roles includes educating the agency department on
wound treatment.

12. Novice simply means a new or student
without any background in nursing from the previous engagement. (Patricia et
al., 2017, p.2)  An example is an
experienced room nurse with the intention of joining home health.

13. Advanced Beginner is a nurse with some
level of experience in nursing either observable or out of practice, and can
identify vital principles of nursing care. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.2)  Example could be a nurse that has some level
of experience in a certain situation

14. A Competent nurse understands the
structural and specific care details depending on the patient’s condition and
in this one should have served in a clinical position for two to three years
mainly psychomotor skills. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.2)  Examples of the patient’s conditions that a
competent nurse should identify are surgical, oncology, or orthopedic ones.

15. Proficient is a nurse who has been in
managerial care service for more than two to three years in a clinical position
thus the person can inspect a situation and based on the experience can relate
to other previous cases regarding offering assistance. (Patricia et al., 2017,
p.2)  An example of a proficient nurse is
this person is able to manage and assess the situation and apply previous
knowledge gained from experience.

16. Expert is a nurse with a wide range of
instinctive experiences in clinical problems with the ability to explore the
problem and offer multiple solutions. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.2)  Example of a problem separation by an expert
nurse includes patient-centered or healthcare related.

17. A nurse practitioner (NP) is a
healthcare professional providing, managing patients by offering services to
them in the following setting such as outpatient, ambulatory care, or
community-based on collaborative engagement and specific groups healthcare
needs. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.4)  An
example can be a family nurse practitioner who works in an outpatient clinic managing
patients and offering services.

18. Nurse researcher plays a significant
role of conducting research on nursing with the purpose of improving and
increase the scope of nursing care practice. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.5)   Example, conducting research on nursing

19. Nursing is a science profession or an
art of offering and delivering care, and assistance to patients in a
compassionate, caring and respectful manner beneficial to them in respect to
dignity. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.2)  An
example could be a nurse that manage pain and provide assistant to patient who
are critically ill.

20. Patient advocate is an individual
acting on behalf of the patients in legal matters and advising the patient
about their rights in the course of seeking attention. (Patricia et al., 2017,
p.3)   An example patient advocate role can be advising
the patients and their families on whether to agree on the treatment

21. Professional organization is bodies
dealing with health issues for those working in the medical profession. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.10)  Example of these
bodies includes National Student Nurses Association (NSNA) in the United States
and the Canadian Student Nurses Association (CSNA).

22. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
(QSEN) seeks to center its efforts on ensuring competencies in quality and
safety measures during patient care are met as stipulated by reports from IOM. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.7)  Example of its
initiatives includes competencies in informatics, safety, quality, and teamwork.

23. Registered Nurse is a profession in
nursing who has undergone a formal education in a university or college. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.9)   For example, In the United States for a nurse
to be registered they have to take an examination from the National Council
Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX).

24. NCLEX National Council Licensure
Examination for Registered Nurses is a regulatory body that ensures every
nursing graduate from a university or college takes an examination in order to
test their knowledge on nursing before they are licensed or allowed to
practice. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.10)  Example
of other elements that they check before issuing license is the criminal record
checks of the applicants. 

25. Baccalaureate degree program is a
university and college program that takes four years of study. (Patricia et
al., 2017, p.10)  Example of the main
area of study is; clinical, theoretical, social sciences, and humanities in
equipping the student with proper knowledge.

26. Licensure meaning all nurses are
required to registered by the relevant body before they can begin practicing. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.10)   A good example is the United States whereby
all nurses must be registered by the NCLEX-RN® regardless of their states.

27. Certification means nursing specialties
are authenticated as genuine nursing practice and a registered nurse chooses to
work in a certain certified nursing practice of their choice. (Patricia et al.,
2017, p.10) Example some of the certified nursing practice is Certified
Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA).

Chapter 4

1. Assumptions are true ignored statements
based on values and beliefs outlining the nature of concepts, explaining
concepts, purpose, relationships, and structure of a theory. (Patricia et al.,
2017, p.42)   An example is Watson’s transpersonal caring
theory which has the assumption that a conscious intention to care boosts
health regain.

2. A Conceptual framework outlines ways of
organizing, and understanding concepts concerning their phenomena. Every
framework has its ways regarding tackling a discipline’s subject matter and author’s
representation of perspectives. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.42)   For
example, theorist’s definition and description take a different shape depending
on the theorist’s ideas and experiences but address same concepts in their

3. Concepts are an abstract idea in words
or phrases that identify and define ideological aspects of a phenomenon. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.42)  For example, in
Watson theory of transpersonal about caring, concepts entails human needs and cultivating

4. Content is a system generation of
information or product about a particular topic or subject matter of interest. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.45)  An example of
patients most affected by common skin care needs is the ones who are unable to
move from their beds.

5. Descriptive theories tend to describe
phenomena and circumstance under which the phenomena occur in its first level
of theory development. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.44)   For
example, theories on growth and development encourage nurses to explain patient
assessments other than offering medical help.

6. A domain is a practical or theoretical
approach of perspectives or territory in a particular discipline or profession.
(Patricia et al., 2017, p.42)   A good example is the nursing domain that
allows nurses to identify and treat patients depending on their health
conditions comprehensively.

7. Feedback is a response that tells the
system about its functionalities. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.45)   For
example, nursing has several feedbacks such as patient’s reaction to specific
nursing practices.

8. Input is data acquired after a
patient’s assessment in the course of nursing care. (Patricia et al., 2017,
p.45) Examples of input include diagnosis report about a patient. 

9. Nursing is the practice of offering
assistance to patients by either protecting, preventing, and optimize their
health conditions. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.43) Example of nursing practices
includes diagnosis, family planning, alleviating pain, and treating

10. A Nursing theory describes nursing
aspects and concepts by describing, explaining, and prescribing nursing care. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.41)An example of a nursing theory is the Orem theory that
stipulates assessment and interpretation of data based on patient-centered

11. An output is the final results of the
nursing process which can be the patient’s improvement. (Patricia et al., 2017,
p.45) Example of output includes patient’s progress such as improvement or
worsening status.

12. A phenomenon is a fact, situation,
event or process whose cause, explanation, or label is in question. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.42) Example of phenomena in nursing includes self-care, health
regains, and caring.

13. Practice theories are special theories
in the sense that it offers a guide to a specific patient population at a
particular time characterized by limited scope and focus in nursing care. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.44) A perfect example of the theory is the practice theory
touching on cardiac surgery.

14. Prescriptive theories discuss the
nursing processes for a phenomenon hence lead to a predictive consequence
during treatment. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.44) Example of prescriptive theory
concept applicability in nursing is the anticipation of nursing processes.

15. A shared theory is a phenomenon
explanation specific to certain disciplines as outlined and developed by the theory.
(Patricia et al., 2017, p.45)An example is the Piaget theory that presents
predictive nature of children regarding their thinking, reason, and perception
about the world.

16. A theory is a concept, definition, and
its relationship to assumptions that project a systematic view of phenomena. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.41)For example, nursing theories tend to explain caring


Chapter 15

1. Clinical decision making is the action
or process of making vital nursing choices after a thorough diagnosis,
treatment or prevention, caring for a wound or illness or optimization. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.200)Examples of clinical decision-making process involve
nursing considerations such as diagnosis, defining a problem and selecting the
appropriate nursing process.

2. A concept map is a care planning in the
form of a visual representation of the patient problems and interventions and
its correlation. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.205)Examples of concept map
objective are a diagnosis, health demands, and data analysis.

3. Critical thinking is an objective and
systematic evaluation of the available options to reach the best decision. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.196) For example, critical thinking considers essential nursing
intervention such as ethics, clinical situation, and exploration of

4. Decision making is a process and
essential action of thinking that focuses on problem resolution. (Patricia et
al., 2017, p.199) Example of a decision-making process in nursing includes the
type of dressing of a surgical wound or selecting good teaching approaches.

5. Diagnostic reasoning is an accurate
analytical process in determining a patient’s health conditions, hence identify
problems and administer the right therapies. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.199)
Example of diagnostic reasoning includes Mr. Lawson options such as interacting
with the patient to understand the real problem facing the patient and
administer the right therapy.

6. Evidence-based knowledge is expertise
that enables critical thinking about a concept based on past experiences and
cognitive skills. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.196) Example of evidence-based
knowledge includes appropriate care, avoiding personal biases, and being

7. An inference is an essential process of
making conclusions from the evidence that are corresponding in comparison to
past evidence. (Patricia et al., 2017, p.199)An example a nursing practice
where a patient was treated for a specific condition and the current patient
has the same condition then the past state is referred for guidance.

8. Nursing processes are prowess and
proper standards that put in place to ensure successful nursing care. (Patricia
et al., 2017, p.201) An example of the nursing process as discussed by ANA is a
framework that facilitates critical thinking. Example of competencies is
patient’s uncommon concerns.

9. Reflection is a serious thought or
consideration based on experienced critical thinking that involves thinking
about past situations hence identifies essential issues. (Patricia et al.,
2017, p.196)An example is an orthopedic experience in Gustilo-Anderson
classification of I, II, III and the refinement of classification III into
IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC of open fractures. 

10. A Scientific method is a systematic,
methodical approach to an investigation or studying phenomena based on
collected data to solving problems as used by several healthcare professionals.
(Patricia et al., 2017, p.198)Examples of scientific method steps are the
collection of data, hypothesis, and evaluation of results. 







RN, MSN, PhD, FAAN, P. A., Griffin Perry, RN, MSN, EdD, FAAN, A., Stockert, RN,
BSN, MS, PhD, P. A., Hall, RN, BSN, MS, PhD, CNE, A. M., & Ostendorf, RN,
MS, EdD, CNE, W. R. (2017). In Fundamentals of Nursing.(9th ed.,pp.4-205)

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